Types of Bill of Lading

Types of Bill Of Lading There are two types of Bill of Lading (B/L) on the basis of Receipt of cargo:- 1. Shipped on Board B/L: Cargo is on board the vessel, It confirms the buyer that cargo is actually shipped. 2. Received for Shipment B/L:  Shipping Company confirms having received the goods for shipment by the vessel mentioned therein. When the goods later loaded on the vessel, a supplementary clause may be inserted in B/L, if it’s not already negotiated: “Actual shipped on Board” – On (Date) and is signed by Shipping agent or Shipping Company Type of Bill of Lading on the Basis of Trade Parties Involved 1.
House Bill of Lading: Issued by Freight Forwarder or Agent having MTO License from DGFT, Ministry of Shipping. 2. Master Bill of Lading: Issued by Shipping or Agent having MTO (Ministry of Transportation) License from DGFT (Director General of Foreign Trade), Ministry of Shipping. Types of Bill of Lading on the basis of Voyage 1. Direct B/L: It covers transportation on one and same vessel from POL to POD i. e. , shipment on vessels offering direct calls from port to port. 2. Through B/L: It covers transportation with transshipment, Inland transportation involved at origin port or destination or at both the sides.
Throughput B/L usually show “transshipment at carriers’ expense but at consignee’s risk” Types of bills of lading on the basis of beneficiaries: – 1. Bill of Lading “To Order”: B/L is drawn on order of the shipper, the consignee or bank can be endorsed in favor of another person who may be the final receiver or an intermediate beneficiary. Commonly used in commercial transaction 2. Bill of Lading “To Bearer”: Bearer of bill of lading can obtain delivery of goods. There is no endorsement of bank or Consignee is required on the same. Types of Bill of Lading on the basis of reservation by the carrier 1.

Clean Bill of Lading: If there is no clause or comment by the carrier in the bill of lading than it shall be considered as clear B/L. 2. Clause Bill of Lading: If any clause or comment mentioned than it would be clause bill of Lading. For e. g. , “Dented Drums” Other Types of Bill of Lading * Inland bill of lading * Ocean bill of lading * Air waybill An inland bill of lading is a document that establishes an agreement between a shipper and a transportation company for the transportation of goods. It is used to lay out the terms for transporting items overland to the exporter’s international transportation company.
An ocean bill of lading is a document that provides terms between an exporter and international carrier for the shipment of goods to a foreign location overseas. An air waybill is a bill of lading that establishes terms of flights for the transportation of goods both domestically and internationally. This document also serves as a receipt for the shipper, proving the carrier’s acceptance of the shipper’s goods and agreement to carry those goods to a specific airport. Essentially, an air waybill is a type of through bill of lading.
This is because air waybills may cover both international and domestic transportation of goods. By contrast, ocean shipments require both inland and ocean bills of lading. Inland bills of lading are necessary for the domestic transportation of goods and ocean bills of lading are necessary for the international carriage of goods. Therefore, through bills of lading may not be used for ocean shipments. Inland and ocean bills of lading may be negotiable or non-negotiable. If the bill of lading is non-negotiable, the transportation carrier is required to provide delivery only to the consignee named in the document.
If the bill of lading is negotiable, the person with ownership of the bill of lading has the right of ownership of the goods and the right to re-route the shipment. Air cargo Air cargo shipment is most common and practical way of receiving your orders on time and cost saving. If your orders volume is 100 kilos plus then air cargo is the best. Receive your order starting from one week to 10 days. Air cargo will deliver the order in specified airport so that the customer or their handling agent should collect it. Shipments by Air Couriers
Shipment using courier services are the best for relatively smaller orders and samples as they deliver the orders in 4 to 6 days at your doorstep. Nepal Mithila Women Handicraft uses most Reliable couriers like  DHL/ARAMEX/FEDEX/TNT/UPS or SYKNET because they are easier to work with due to their fast and home delivery. These courier companies have expensive rates for the smaller packets but if the orders are more than 25 kilos, the approximate shipping would be US$ 8 to $14 per kilo (depending on the volume and the destination).
These courier companies will act as your custom agent to release the goods and delivers the packets at your home. The courier companies does not charge you for their own services at the custom BUT if there is custom duties applies on the orders, then thy will reimburse the money from the customer later at the orders delivery time. Labels: Each article will be fixed with label showing made in Nepal, material composition, washing instructions, size etc. as appropriate. We follow buyers’ instruction in case of bulk consignment. Documentations:
We prepare the following documentation work from the company and authorized sectors of Nepal’s government for the customs purpose AIR WAYBILL, GSP OR FORM A, INVOICE, PACKING LIST, CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN and other essential documentations to release the shipment from the customs Terms: Air Freight FSC- Fuel surcharge, applicable only at certain times Interline- One airline to another ULD – Unit load device, an airline container SCR- Specific commodity rate GCR- General commodity rate MAWB- Master air waybill, freight forwarder to freight forwarder air waybill HAWB- House air waybill, shipper to consignee air waybill
IATA- Governing body for international air transportation Ground Freight B-train- 2-20ft. trailers being pulled by one tractor LTL- Less than a truckload FTL – Full truckload CWT – Per hundred pounds PUP- 20ft. trailer T/L – Trailer Load Dimensional Freight- Subject to 10# per cubic ft. Calculations: Calculate Kilograms to Pounds kgs x 2. 2= pounds (#) Calculate Pounds to Kilograms Pounds ? 2. 2= kgs Dimensional weight L”xW”xH” ? 366= kgs L”xW”xH” ? 166= pounds Six Steps to Dealing with Customer Complaints At some point, everyone in business has to deal with an upset customer.
The challenge is to handle the situation in a way that leaves the customer thinking you operate a great company. If you’re lucky, you can even encourage him or her to serve as a passionate advocate for your brand. When it comes down to it, many customers don’t even bother to complain. They simply leave and buy from your competitors. Research suggests that up to 80 percent of customers who leave were, in fact, “satisfied” with the original company. Obviously, customer satisfaction is not enough. Businesses nowadays need to positively delight customers if they want to earn their loyalty.
It may seem counter-intuitive, but a business owner’s ability to effectively deal with customer complaints provides a great opportunity to turn dissatisfied customers into active promoters of the business. Here are some customer-oriented tips I’ve learned while working in the business coaching business:1. Listen carefully to what the customer has to say, and let them finish. Don’t get defensive. The customer is not attacking you personally; he or she has a problem and is upset. Repeat back what you are hearing to show that you have listened. 2. Ask questions in a caring and concerned manner.
The more information you can get from the customer, the better you will understand his or her perspective. I’ve learned it’s easier to ask questions than to jump to conclusions. 3. Put yourself in their shoes. As a business owner, your goal is to solve the problem, not argue. The customer needs to feel like you’re on his or her side and that you empathize with the situation. 4. Apologize without blaming. When a customer senses that you are sincerely sorry, it usually diffuses the situation. Don’t blame another person or department. Just say, “I’m sorry about that. ”5. Ask the customer, “What would be an acceptable solution to you? Whether or not the customer knows what a good solution would be, I’ve found it’s best to propose one or more solutions to alleviate his or her pain. Become a partner with the customer in solving the problem. 6. Solve the problem, or find someone who can solve it— quickly! Research indicates that customers prefer the person they are speaking with to instantly solve their problem. When complaints are moved up the chain of command, they become more expensive to handle and only add to the customer’s frustration. There is no getting around customer complaints, regardless of your industry.
However, by employing these steps and taking the time to review the issue with the customer, you can turn challenges into something constructive. | 10 Tips for dealing with customer complaints Dealing with customer complaints effectively can improve customer retention and help your company gain a reputation for providing good service. Our panel of experts shares their top tips to ensure complaints don’t turn into disasters. 1. Acknowledge their anger and apologise Whilst you are listening to them, make a note (mentally or written down) of the main points of their grievance.
Once they are finished, thank them for their comments, acknowledge their anger and apologise. 2. Reassure the customer Use the notes you made whilst listening to demonstrate that you have a secure grasp on the problem by giving them a precis of what they have just told you. Mirror some of their (less colourful! ) language, keep your tone measured and calm and ask a closed question at the end to check you have a full understanding. By now, the customer should at least be ready to let you help them. Assure them that is exactly what you’re going to do and explain he realistic options you have available to you. If the customer wants something that simply is not possible, apologise, give reasons why this is not an available option and then tell them what you can do for them. 3. Act Finally, once you have explained what you are going to do to resolve the customer’s problem, do it. Follow it through and ensure that what you promised is delivered. Hopefully, by this point, you will have a happy customer who will return to your company, not to mention a happy agent whose days are a little less stressful! 4. Make it easy to speak to a live agent
Communicate the ease and accessibility of reaching live agents in channels of the customer’s choosing, and prepare and empower your employees to provide first-contact resolution. Most customers who say it is hard to deal with a company said it was because their issue was not resolved the first time they contacted them for service. Self-service certainly has its time and place, but when issues are complex or frustrating, customers want (and demand) access to live agents. In fact, preference for live web chat has grown in the last year. 5. Aggressively promote the fact that you want feedback
You want to know when you get it wrong. And, make it easy for customers to contact you and get immediate access to empowered and empathetic agents. If customers can’t find a convenient way to give feedback, they may just defect to another company without saying a word. 6. Use proactive communication Let the customer know about an issue first and connect them to an agent. Almost all customers say it is appropriate for a company they do business with to proactively contact them. However, companies must be sensitive to the reasons and channels they employ, as the vast majority of customers are not open to anything and everything.
You only get one chance, so don’t burn the bridge by not providing the best agent and technology-based experiences your customers want and expect. 7. Empathize with the customer The first thing you need to think about when dealing with complaints is how you would feel if you were the one making the complaint. Empathy and understanding are paramount to giving good customer service whether it is in sales, customer service or customer complaints departments. Allow the customer to vent their feelings and then remind them that you are here to help them and will do everything in your power to resolve the issue.
This gives them the feeling that you see them as more than just a number on a system and can act to calm the customer down especially if it is a difficult or challenging situation. The fact that you are offering to help them goes a long way to calming them down initially and if you can minimise passing them from department to department this will also help them to remain calm and listen to any options you put forward. Base the discussions with the customer on facts, don’t let emotion drive the conversation. Ian Jensen, Team Manager, RESPONSE (www. response-uk. co. uk) 8.
Make sure you act on social media Social media is becoming the vehicle of choice for customers, frustrated by poor customer service. But these complaints can be amplified very loudly – particularly on Twitter. Start by listening to the social media channels. Once you understand what is being said it is time to intervene. This can also be by social media – particularly to try and find out a customer’s phone number – but would probably be better if it is by a proactive follow up call. If this is done in a timely fashion it can go a long way to diffuse any frustration the customer is feeling. 9.
A complaint is an opportunity for the business to learn and grow As a business, every complaint should be treated as serious and the customer with a small ‘expression of dissatisfaction’ should be given the same courtesy as someone whose complaint is huge. Remember to be a ‘goodwill’ company. Be thankful that your customer is voicing their problem, but realise that they may still use your competition the next time they need your product or service. You may not gain their future loyalty, but use the situation they bring up to minimise it happening again. 10. Act on the new knowledge you have
One of the most important factors in complaint handling is to demonstrate that the company has acknowledged the complaint for the future. Don’t stop at telling them that feedback such as theirs helps you to grow as a company – make it feel real by telling them how you will be raising this issue with the customer services manager so that (where possible) this is 1) resolved 2) not repeated with other customers. Finally, after the complaint has been dealt with and is coming to a close, advise them that you hope that this recent situation hasn’t adversely affected their long term relationship with you as a company.
Reiterate that you hope the compensation you are offering may go some way to restoring their faith in the company / product or service. Listen carefully to the customer. Know and understand the complaint of the customer and never interrupt him or her. Remember that they want to be heard and let the customer release any emotional irritation before saying anything. This could make the customer feel that you are listening and acknowledging the feelings carefully. Empathize with the customer. Repeat the complaint and confirm to signify that you got it correctly.
Thank the customer for bringing the problem to your attention for better customer service of the company. Apologize. Reasonable and unreasonable complaints are valued by the customer that needs proper attention or customer service. Apologize for the inconvenience that complain may have affected the customer. Explain the reasons or the company’s side politely. No matter how angry the customer is, try to remain calm and patient while you address the complain properly. Have a clear answer and give data if necessary to support your explanation. Take responsibility for action.
Let the customer feel that the complain will be taken into action. Explain what action you will take to correct the problem. Commit to give feedback as soon as possible preferably with a given date to assure the customer that the complain will be handled immediately. End the conversation by asking the customer for other things that you may be of service aside from the complain. 5 GOLDEN RULES If you are in a business, you will eventually have to interact with disgruntled customers and the way you handle the issue is the way you are going to be known in the market.
Make no mistake here – a disgruntled client will always create a large damaging ripple for your image. Carry on like this and very soon you will be known as the company with the worst customer service. You cannot afford this or you will lose business sooner than later. Hence, you need to learn how to handle a complaint effectively. Here are the rules for handling customer complaints that will promote your business better than any advertisement: Respond instantly – when a customer complains, respond instantly.
The more they wait, the more they get frustrated and hence, would be more inclined to be unreasonable. Do not wait for their irritation to escalate to anger. Respond to their complaint message immediately. Believe that customer’s complaint is genuine – one of the worst steps of counteraction a company can give is implying that the customer is dishonest or unrealistic. Tell the client that you believe their complaint is genuine and you are trying your best to see what can be done to help. Apologize for the pain they feel not for the mistake – the mistake is not always yours.
However, the complaining individual is genuinely aggrieved. Apologize to the customer for the pain they have experienced. Saying sorry for their (customer’s) discomfort is not the same as saying sorry for a mistake that your company has done. However, when you say sorry genuinely, the customer is more often than not already pacified and ready to listen to you with an open mind. Do your best to meet their expectations – one of the most important rules for handling customer complaints is showing that you are doing your best to help.
You will find that the majority of people are reasonable in their expectations. Just knowing that you are making all the effort to help them will often open the door to negotiations on how to resolve the problem towards mutual benefit. If it is your mistake, overcompensate – there will be instances when the customer is right. The service/ product/ experience/ was bad. If you are guilty of any such thing, the rules for handling customer complaints say that you acknowledge, apologize and immediately over compensate the aggrieved client.
In this way, you are eliminating a disgruntled customer and appointing a free goodwill ambassador for your brand; for this customer will not stop praising you after that. CASE STUDY ANSWERS Divide the answer into 5 parts: 1. Define the Problem Describe the problem in the workplace. What is involved in making it a problem? 2. Analyze the Problem Tell about how you collected information for analyzing data: the process you utilized for extracting maximum information from the facts. 3. Generate possible Solutions
Explain the factors you took for making a decision: how did you get to the root cause of the problem? How did you identify the likely causes of problem? How did you generate a number of possible solutions? 4. Select the best Solution(s) and course of actions Describe the actions you took: why did you choose these actions? What were the results you expected to achieve? Describe how you organized ideas into process flow and common theme and the way you monitor result. Don’t forget the risk management factors. 5. Lesson learned What did you get? What was going right? What do you learn from that experience?

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