Tuberculosis Infection and Disease and Poverty
A 28 years old male patient come with the complaint of cough, shortness of breath and high grade fever since from last 2 weeks admitted in private ward with a preventive isolation. He was diagnosed with tuberculosis. He was a chain smoker smoking almost 1 packet a day. He haspast medical history of upper respiratory tract infection. His family has such as no any history. The social history of patient is that he was working in Pall Mall Company since from the 14 years. According to functional health pattern his suffering nutrition imbalance, sleep disturbance, role relation is uncomforted and his sexual reproductive health is also disturbed.Tuberculosis Infection and Disease and Poverty
On set assessment vital signs of patients is blood pressure is 130/90 mmhg, pulse is 96 beats per min, respiration is 28/min and where he has a fever with 102˚F. The rationale behind selecting tuberculosis is that, this is the most common communicable disease in world and the prevalence of tuberculosis is Pakistan, with an expected 510 000 new TB cases rising every year and roughly 15 000 creating drug safe TB cases each year and its considered a very common issue among people and one of the key purposes behind development of medication protection type of TB include, delays in conclusion, unsupervised, unseemly and insufficient medication regimens, poor development and absence of a social help program for high chance the people live in Pakistan.
Tuberculosis is now a days become the most harmful disease and its mortality rate is increasing among Pakistan greater than before, this is just because of people who don’t taking it serious and they are not taking any action against this disease to overcome it. It’s a bacterial disease which is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis which can grow in any part of the body involving organs bones lymph nodes adrenal gland kidney and in brain over meninges and can be spread throughout of the body.
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The sign and symptoms which were noticed on the time of assessment in the patient is excessive coughing due to congestion of the respiratory tract and the patient complaining that sometime he noticed blood with the cough and similar to this he was complaining of chest pain which was increasing with high pitch cough and patient was looking restlessness, fatigue having with the fever of 102˚F. Nights sweets complain declared by the patient and he is suffering with the generalized weakness due to loss of appetite by which he loses his weight. According to the article tuberculosis infections are usually onset and in some other cases duration may be extend from week to months according to severity of disease. It can be occurring in young children as well as in infants adult and old aged people who ever are immune compromised are at the high risk of getting tuberculosis. Fever, night sweats, and weight loss are the trait present roughly 55% to 70% of patient respectively and the most reported symptom observed by the health care facilitators 95% during tuberculosis which is persistent non remittent cough.(Hinkle J & Cheever K. 2014).Tuberculosis Infection and Disease and Poverty
The causes of tuberculosis and the infection that can transmitted through channel and its mode of transmission when someone have this type of infection tb, where the other is at the risk if the affected can squeeze or he cough where the unaffected person can ihnale his droplet he can be affected. Apart from this there are so many modes through which tuberculosis can spread by a person to his family member, by a students to his class where the affected person can be in contact with non affected that he can easily at the risk of getting infection. According to the article tuberculosis is an ancient disease which has affected the mankind up to 4000 year. The bacteria which are responsible for spreading infection is mycobacterium tuberculosis and it can be transmitted to person to person through air, through contact. The infection can affected 80 to 90 percent of the body part including such as brain, spine, kidney, and intestine as well. The symptoms can be depending on where in the body the bacteria of tuberculosis are growing. (D Raviglione 2015, December 01)
The nursing interventions applying on patient are; Place the patient in a isolated room. Keep the entryway of the patient’s room closed and put a detachment sign at a noticeable area. Screen negative pressure is keeping up – 2 mmhg. Utilize standard safety measures and wear proper gloves, outfits while giving direct care and contact to the patient. Keep up successful hand wash subsequent to offering consideration to understanding. Medical attendant and guests must wear a N-95 cover while going into the patient room.Tuberculosis Infection and Disease and Poverty
Assess the respiratory and heart rate of the patients every 6 hourly. Always check the patient sputum for any sight of infection specially assess COCA and blood in sputum with encouraging patient ability to cough effectively .place the patient in comfort position and check for the complains of patient. Assess the patient airway for any kind of obstruction through which he can suffer inhale or exhale. Give him plenty of fluid to loosen the secretion of patient with a soft diet .Provide balanced and vitamin containing diets as prescribed and possibly Maintain fluid intake. Give him full of rest and administer all medication as ordered in exact time in empty stomach. Explain patient about doses of medicine assess the three check before administer the medicine.
We conclude that tuberculosis infection and disease remain common in populations characterized by poor housing conditions, drug use, and HIV infection especially in Pakistan Therapy should be administered urgently to prevent an otherwise fatal outcome and to detect at the early stage we must have to complete screening every 3 month and Expanded program on immunization (EPI) is one kinds of evidence based tool for controlling and even eradicating infectious disease. It protects against childhood communicable disease, which can result in death and severe debilitation.Tuberculosis Infection and Disease and Poverty
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