science and technology
Chapter 15 of the book discusses how the world expanded through the various recoveries made at the end of the fourteenth century and throughout the fifteenth century. For instance, the fragile empires that existed in Africa, especially in the East and West Africa, gave the West a part opportunity to expand their worlds. These had political changes in the West as they were able to capture new territories and hence, expand their rule. The chapter also discusses how the imperialism of the Chinese was limited culminating in the establishment of an oceanic imperialism. This can be argued to have been the foundation for the settlement and imperialism that later took place in India and China as discussed in chapter 18.
The ecological interventionism that was prevalent in America and as manifested by both the Aztec and Inca empires laid a foundation for the novel exploitations that America later experienced under the Brazil, Spanish Empire and the British North America. It also gave rise to the America’s pastoral colonization. The chapter also discusses the formation of the fresh empires of Eurasia such as the Ottoman and the Russian Empires. This was the basis for the fall of the new world as manifested in chapter 18. It was also a basis for the microbial changes that Eurasia experienced especially with the advent of plagues and diseases that were previously unknown.
Chapter 16 describes the new empires that came into being in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. These empires were divided into both maritime such as Portugal, Asia and Dutch and land empires such as China, Ottomans and India. America also experienced novel land empires and they worked towards ensuring their success. These efforts by the Americans had a big impact on the world at large and specifically on matters of trade. This set a framework for the ecological revolution that took place in these centuries. For instance, people were able to move labor across the globe as analyzed in chapter 17. Others migrated into new places where they settled. People were also able to reclaim new lands and discover new sources of energy. Culturally, people were able to interact and exchange with one another various plants and animals that were not existent in the other cultures. Some of these were coffee, tea, maize and livestock.
The formation of the new world also gave rise to a change in the religious views of the people. For example, Christianity was introduced in the delicate empires of Africa as indicated in chapter 18. Buddhism and Islam also spread to other nations such as Japan and China. The interactions of the world community also culminated in religious diversity such as the Black Americans, the American Indians and the white Americans. Subsequently, there was an introduction of science and technology and this spread to Africa since it had been discovered by the Western nations. This facilitated the formation of one single community known as the world community
Fernandez-Armesto, Dr Felipe. The World: A History. Volume 2. Pearson, 2016. Print.
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