Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay

Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay

340 Papers 6 and 8 weeks
APA, References and free Plagiarism

Due date 10/13/2020
Week 6 Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project
• Choice 2
Create a trifold educational flier for any of the issues discussed in this week’s readings. Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay

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For either format that you choose, you must include a reference page with at least three citations using resources that are less than five years old.
Consider the following information when pulling your research together:
• Summarize the models of care that have evolved in caring for victims of intentional violence.
• Describe the impact of substance abuse and addiction on individual people and their families, communities, and nations.

Review the following case study and complete the questions that follow. Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay

As a nurse practicing within a family practice, you are interviewing a 55-year-old woman who is an executive assistant at a local law firm, where she has worked for 9 years. She has a 7-year history of respiratory illness, which occurs several times throughout the year, not seemingly connected to the changes in season. She does not use tobacco products in any form. During your questions regarding her home and work environments, she reports that she enjoys working adjacent to the courthouse in a building over 100 years old because it is such a contrast to her brand-new home on a local golf course. When describing the health of her coworkers, she indicates, “We all share illnesses, which seem to affect everyone else during the year; we just seem to be sicker more often!”
• What information is pertinent to your client’s case?
• How would you assess your client’s risk?
• What would be an exposure pathway for your client?
Your document should be 1-2 pages in length, in APA format, typed in Times New Roman with 12-point font, double-spaced with 1” margins, and include at least two citations using references less than five years old. Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay

Substance abuse (SA) and intimate partner
violence (IPV) are closely associated in the public
mind. Many people believe that men’s abuse of
drugs or alcohol is a primary reason for their
battering. Others think that SA may increase the risk
for IPV, but is not a direct cause of IPV. Still others
believe SA and IPV are separate issues, which only
appear to be related due to other factors. In fact,
both SA and IPV have many causes and many
effects, and their apparent correlation applies to only
a sub-group of batterers and victims (Testa, 2004).
For some men who batter, SA may increase the
frequency or severity of their violence. For other
men, SA and IPV are separate issues whose
apparently high rate of co-occurrence may stem
from shared pre-conditions such as antisocial
personality (Fals-Stewart, Leonard & Birchler,
2005) or from a belief that when they get drunk or
high, they are going to be violent (Field, Caetano, &
Nelson, 2004). Finally, for some men, both
substance abuse and IPV may be manifestations of
an underlying need for power and control related to
gender-based distortions and insecurities (Gondolf,
1995). Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay
Regardless of the explanation for it, the cooccurrence of IPV and SA is substantial across a
series of studies:
• Half of the men in batterer intervention programs
appear to have SA issues (Gondolf, 1999) and are
eight times as likely to batter on a day in which they
have been drinking (Fals-Stewart, 2003).
• Approximately half of partnered men entering
substance abuse treatment have battered in the past
year (Chermack, Fuller & Blow, 2000; FalsStewart & Kennedy, 2005) and are 11 times as
likely to batter on a day in which they have been
drinking (Fals-Stewart, 2003).
• Between a quarter and half of the women
receiving victim services for IPV have SA problems
(Bennett & Lawson, 1994; Downs, 2001; Ogle &
Baer, 2003).
• Between 55 and 99 percent of women who
have SA issues have been victimized at some point
in their life (Moses, et al., 2003) and between 67
and 80 percent of women in SA treatment are IPV
victims (Cohen, et al., 2003; Downs, 2001).
For all the reasons above, SA issues should
always be considered when making decisions about
the safety of IPV victims and the risk posed by IPV
perpetrators. Likewise, past and current IPV, along
with other trauma-related issues, should always be
considered when assisting men and women
recovering from the effects of SA. In the remainder
of this paper, we will discuss the co-occurrence of
SA and IPV, highlight the special role of men’s
drunkenness in IPV, examine substance abuse by
victims, and briefly present issues related to
coordination and integration of SA and IPV
services. Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay
In this paper, except when a special distinction is
necessary, we will use the term SA (substance
abuse) to refer to both the continued use of or
dependency on alcohol or other drugs in the face of
adverse consequences. We will use the term IPV
(intimate partner violence) to refer to threatening or
controlling behavior, both physical and non-physical,
directed at women by men who are their partners or
Substance Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence
Larry Bennett and Patricia Bland
VAWnet Applied Research Forum
Substance Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence (May 2008) Page 2 of 14
VAWnet: The National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women www.vawnet.org
ex-partners. While IPV also includes violence in gay
and lesbian relationships, and violence to men by
their women partners, very little information exists on
the link between SA and these other forms of IPV.
In this paper we will limit IPV to threatening or
controlling behavior, both physical and non-physical,
directed at women by men who are their partners or
ex-partners.
Prevalence
Both SA and IPV are common, but the
frequency of their co-occurrence is not entirely clear.
The co-occurrence rates of substance use and IPV
in most published studies have ranged between 25
and 50 percent. In a national study of man-towoman IPV in 6,002 households, of the 12% of
adults who reported IPV, 22% of the men and 10%
of the women were using alcohol at the time of the
violence, but in three out of four episodes of IPV,
neither party had been drinking (Kantor & Strauss,
1987). A study in Canada sets the co-occurrence
rate closer to 50% (Pernanen, 1991). However,
these figures demonstrate the number of batterers or
victims who had been drinking at the time of the
violence (alcohol use), and not their drinking
patterns or the cumulative effects of drinking
(alcohol abuse). Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay
The proportion of men in the general population
who use IPV increases with the frequency they get
drunk (Johnson, 2001; Kantor & Straus, 1987).
The relationship between drunkenness and IPV also
varies by social class. In one study, lower income
men who never got drunk rarely committed IPV
(2%) compared to the rate of IPV among lower
income men who got drunk often (40%). For men in
the higher income group in this study, the annual IPV
rate increased from 2% of men who never got drunk
to 9% of men who got drunk often (Coleman &
Straus, 1983). These data appear to support a
public perception that men who batter are drunken
bums, that is, men are more likely to commit IPV if
they earn low income and abuse alcohol (Kantor &
Straus, 1987).
But, the drunken bum perspective on IPV is
limited in several ways. First, the relationship
between SA and IPV is strongest for those men who
already think IPV is appropriate in certain situations
(Field, et al., 2004; Kantor & Straus, 1987). One
study found that when the endorsement of men’s
dominance was considered, the correlation between
SA and IPV disappeared (Johnson, 2001). Second,
even though the per capita rate of IPV is higher
among lower socio-economic groups (Gelles,
1993); the occurrence of IPV is well established
across all income groups. Third, the amount of
alcohol used prior to most episodes of intimate
violence is often far less than imagined. In
Pernanen’s (1991) classic study of alcohol-related
violence, the average amount of alcohol consumed
prior to a violent episode was only about an ounce,
equal to a beer or glass of wine. Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay
A common misunderstanding is that men who
batter are extremely intoxicated and out of control
when they batter. Despite the impairment in men’s
behavior caused by alcohol and drugs, IPV remains
a matter of choice, a guided doing (Pernanen,
1991). IPV usually occurs in a safe setting (for the
batterer), selected for the protection it affords him,
at a time of his choosing, with a predictable victim.
The fact that violence rarely occurs outside men’s
comfort zone suggests that men who batterer are
very much in control, not out of control. Drug use
may be even more strongly correlated to IPV than
use of alcohol (Murphy, O’Farrell, Fals-Stewart, &
Feehan, 2001; Kantor & Straus, 1989; Testa,
2004), but in most cases, this difference does not
reflect the biochemical properties of the substance
but rather exposure to criminals and antisocial
lifestyles. Although drunkenness is a strong predictor
of IPV, SA is far less a factor in IPV than in violence
between strangers (Felson, Burchfield, & Teasdale,
2005). One reason for this is that the choice to
batter often precedes the drinking or drugging. In
most cases, there is a pre-existing pattern of
dominant and controlling behavior by the perpetrator
toward his traditional victim. This pattern reflects a
different relationship between perpetrator and victim
in IPV than in stranger violence, where substancerelated violence is often opportunistic.
VAWnet Applied Research Forum
Substance Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence (May 2008) Page 3 of 14
VAWnet: The National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women www.vawnet.org Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay
Overall, research has established links between
SA and IPV, but this link is not always simple and
direct. SA may increase the risk that men will batter
their partners, but the chemical properties of the
substance are not the determining factor, or even the
most important factor. A majority of heavy drinkers
never batter (Kantor & Straus, 1987), which
suggests that IPV is linked to other factors in
addition to any direct effects of substances.
Perspectives on the Relationship between
Substance Abuse and Woman Abuse
We acknowledge the concern of victims’
advocates that connections between SA and IPV
could shift the responsibility for IPV from the man
who batters to the substance abused, making
prevention or treatment of SA the issue while
ignoring the key dynamics of gender and power.
This is a legitimate concern, but it is both possible
and desirable to maintain a gender-informed
perspective on IPV while simultaneously identifying
co-occurring issues and targeted interventions. None
of the perspectives below interfere with our
understanding of IPV as a choice men make in a
society covertly supporting men’s power and control
of women. Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay
In order to conclude that SA causes IPV, at
least three conditions need to be met. First, the
substance use behaviors must precede the IPV in
time. Second, the relationship between the SA
behaviors and IPV must be strong enough to state
that the co-occurrence is not due to chance. Finally,
there must not be any other explanation for both SA
and IPV. While the first two conditions have been
established by research (Fals-Stewart & Kennedy,
2005), the third condition—no other explanation—is
the fatal flaw in an argument that SA causes IPV.
Several of these complicating factors are described
below.

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The ways that substance use or abuse impact
IPV, or vice versa, are complex and research aimed
at understanding the relationship continues. Here, we
distinguish between the acute effects of alcohol or
drugs (e.g. intoxication) and the chronic effects (e.g.
substance abuse or dependency). Evidence suggests
that both acute and chronic effects impact men’s use
of IPV, but operate differently. Among men who are
in programs for either substance abuse or battering,
80% of all battering episodes occur within four
hours of alcohol use (Fals-Stewart, 2003),
supporting the view that understanding the acute
effects of drinking is important. On the other hand, a
study of factory workers showed that a diagnosis of
alcohol abuse is a better predictor of IPV in men
than the quantity or frequency of alcohol use
(Leonard, Brommet, Parkinson, Day, & Ryan,
1985). This study supports the importance of
understanding the chronic effects of alcohol abuse,
in addition to any immediate effects of intoxication.
Chronic SA increases the risk for IPV in several
ways. For instance, it can gradually erode cognitive
functioning, such as problem solving and memory. It
can also impair social relationships, including
relationship with one’s intimate partner. Specific
effects of acute and chronic SA are described
below. SA also increases the risk for income loss
through various mechanisms, which in turn increases
the risk for IPV. Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay
Although popular, it is too simple to say that the
chemical properties of a substance act on the part of
the brain that inhibits violence. Since no such
inhibition center has been located in the brain, the
direct disinhibition model has been challenged by
most experts. If direct disinhibition explained the
relationship between substance use and IPV, we
would expect batterers who were substance abusers
to become non-violent when they were treated and
achieved abstinence. In some cases this does
happen (Klostermann & Fals-Stewart, 2006), but
abstinent and recovering substance abusers are
well-represented in domestic violence courts and
batterers programs, some with many years of stable
sobriety. The effect of substances on IPV, if one
exists, is much more complicated than direct
disinhibition would allow. Other explanations for the
high co-occurrence of SA and IPV are briefly
described below. Regarding IPV, substances/SA
may be: Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay
VAWnet Applied Research Forum
Substance Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence (May 2008) Page 4 of 14
VAWnet: The National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women www.vawnet.org
• A cognitive disrupter. The most prominent
explanation of how alcohol increases the risk for
violence is the proximal model. The proximal model
proposes that, in a sub-set of men, alcohol use
causes IPV by compromising a man’s ability to
judge social cues, react appropriately, and maintain
attention (Klosterman & Fals-Stewart, 2006; Field,
et al., 2004). Batterers are more likely than nonbatterers to misperceive the motives of their partners
as abandoning, aggressive, or unjust, and alcohol
enhances those misperceptions. For example,
without alcohol consumption, a man may interpret
his partner’s coming home later than expected as
inconsiderate. If he drank a six-pack of beer, he
may view the same behavior as evidence of infidelity.
A similar cognitive distortion may also occur with no
alcohol consumption. For instance, watching a TV
program about a woman having an affair or talking
to a friend about a partner’s infidelity are also
cognitive disrupters for some men who choose to
abuse their partners. Different men have different
thresholds for aggression. Alcohol will have little
effect on a man with a high threshold of aggression.
Likewise, a man with a low threshold for aggression
does not need alcohol to reduce his threshold, which
has already been crossed. Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay
• A co-occurring situation. The apparent
relationship between SA and IPV may be linked to
personality characteristics such as hostility (Leonard
& Blane, 1992), to co-occurring disorders such as
antisocial personality disorder (Fals-Stewart, et al.,
2005), or to other co-occurring situations such as
poverty (Kantor & Straus, 1987). Conduct disorder
and antisocial personality, for example, increase the
risk for both IPV and SA in adult men. We would
speculate that, on average, more co-occurring
conditions are associated with greater likelihood of
men’s aggression against their partners. It is
important to remember, however, that most poor
men, most men with antisocial personality disorder,
most men with high levels of hostility, and most men
with SA disorder do not batter.
• A power motive. McClelland (1975) suggested
that the alcohol-aggression relationship is conditional
upon individual power needs. Small quantities of
alcohol tend to increase a social user’s sense of
altruistic power, or the power to help others. A
large quantity of alcohol for social drinkers–or any
quantity of alcohol for addicted persons–tends to
increase the user’s sense of personal power and
domination over others rather than their altruistic
power. Several researchers (Gondolf, 1995; Kantor
& Straus, 1987) have suggested power theory may
explain, in part, the co-occurrence of SA and IPV.
The eminent alcoholism researcher Robin Room
(1980) referred to alcohol as an instrument of
intimate domination. From this view, both IPV
and SA would be, in part, outcomes of a man’s
need for power, particularly power over other
people. A man’s need for power may have origins
both in early experiences and in social interactions,
so power theory is not inconsistent with traditional
gendered perspectives on men’s violence. The
power motive may be viewed as a psychological
condition that predisposes men to abuse substances
and people, but the relationship between power and
abuse is usually gendered and reinforced in culture.
• Situational. Violence may occur during the
process of obtaining and using substances, rather
than from the substances per se (Goldstein, 1985).
The situational relationship between SA and IPV is
particularly relevant when illegal drugs are involved
(Roberts, 1988). In general, IPV by men using
illegal drugs is more severe than IPV by men using
alcohol alone (Willson, et al., 2000), but the reasons
have less to do with the drug itself than the situation
in which the drug is used and the lifestyle of the user
(Testa, 2004). Procuring and trafficking drugs
increases the opportunity for exposure to criminals,
weapons, and violent sub-cultures. Conflict between
intimate partners over whether, where, and when to
use substances, including alcohol, is not uncommon.
In one study of alcoholic patients using a violence
recollection procedure, conflict over drinking
alcohol was cited as the topic of conflict in over half
of the episodes recalled by both perpetrator and
victim (Murphy, Winters, O’Farrell, Fals-Stewart,
& Murphy, 2005). A battered woman may also use
substances with her abuser in an attempt to manage
his violence and increase her own safety, or she may
be forced by her batterer to use substances with him
(Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 1997). Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay

Domestic violence can be defined as the systematic pattern of abusive behaviors in a
relationship that are used to gain and/or maintain control and power over another person
(Domestic Abuse Project, 2016). This can include physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional
abuse, psychological abuse, and/or technological or financial abuse. Domestic Abuse Project
(2016) also notes that domestic violence is the leading cause of injury to women in the United
States. Moreover, domestic violence occurs to one in four women and claims a life in the United
States every six hours. Meaning, a woman is violently attacked every fifteen seconds (DAP,
2016). The impact of the abuse ripples through a family impacting not only the victim, but the
children as well.
According to Sullivan, Egan, & Gooch (2004), it is suggested that 275 million children in
the world and more than 10 million children in the United States witness domestic violence.
Stephens reported (1999) that an estimated 3.3 million and up to 10 million children annually in
the United States witnessed domestic violence. Children’s Fund (2006) suggested that 275 Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay
million children across the world witness domestic violence on average in a year. The impact of
domestic violence on children who witness these events can be devastating and puts these
children at a greater risk of being abused themselves (Chamberlain, 2001). Evidence shows a
correlation between the occurrences of domestic violence with threats to a child’s safety, and the
numbers of calls or reports to Child Protection Services (Potito, Day, Carson, & O’Leary, 2009).
The number of calls or reports to CPS can directly impact the child’s ability to remain within the
home or with their family. Child protection authorities are being involved more routinely in
cases of domestic violence, which has led to them using interventions up to and including
removing the child from the home. Regarding the consequences of domestic violence on the
THE IMPACT OF WITNESSING DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN 6
victim, the impact on their children is far reaching; there are numerous psychological effects for
the children who witness this abuse. Children are experiencing delays in cognitive and
emotional development, extreme withdrawal or aggressiveness, anxiety disorders, as well as
internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (Antle, Barbee, Yankeelov, & Bledsoe, 2010).
This paper studied the previous research that looks at the experiences of children who witness
domestic violence and the impacts on their behaviors, adjustments, and development. The
purpose of this systematic review was to summarize current research, highlight important
challenges in the research, and to provide recommendations for further research.
Literature Review
Domestic violence affects all who are exposed; perpetrators, victims, and the children
who witness the violence. There is little doubt that domestic violence occurs, is an international
epidemic, and affects all people, regardless of class, gender, and race (Joseph, Govender,
Bhagwanjee, 2006). It is important to understand the complexities of domestic violence in order
to be effective in understanding the systems that are also affected by this violent act.
Witnessing Domestic Violence as a Child Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay
It can be easy to overlook the problems of children that are involved in domestic violence
families. The children seem to be doing well, or the parents are doing their best to keep the
children out of the violent episodes, but the impact of witnessing the events are detrimental
(Pfouts, Schopler, & Henley Jr., 1982). Witnessing domestic violence does not necessarily mean
that the child is in visible range of the violence (Meltzer, Doos, Vostanis, Ford, & Goodman,
2009). According to McGee (1997) many children can describe very traumatic events that they
heard, but have never seen the actual act of violence. One study showed that the psychosocial
THE IMPACT OF WITNESSING DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN 7
outcomes of children exposed to domestic violence had significantly worse outcomes compared
to those who had not experienced any form of domestic violence (Meltzer et al., 2009). The
impact of witnessing domestic violence can vary for all individuals. The impact of witnessing
domestic violence can have many developmental impacts on children, and those can start as
early as conception and carry on through adulthood depending on the severity of the trauma
(Curran, 2013).
Impact of Witnessing Domestic Violence on Child Development
The impacts on the social and emotional development as well as the physiological and
physical development of child witnesses of domestic violence are unending, and research shows
the impact can begin before the child is born because of the distress the mother of the child
experiences (Howell, Barnes, Miller, & Graham-Bermann, 2016). Social and emotional
development is what affects our mind and our behavioral regulations, such as intellectual
abilities, mental activities, and behaviors. Physiological and physical development is what
affects our body, such as structural differences in the brain or body, sexual orientation, and aging
(Robbins, Chatterjee, Canda, 2012). In a study of young children from Scheeringa and Zeanah
(1995), it was reported that children who even sensed a perceived threat to their caregiver were
more likely to have negative behavioral and emotional outcomes than other types of childhood
stressors. In those children, the most common symptoms were hyper arousal, fearfulness, and
increased aggression toward peers, compared to children who had not experienced this type of
exposure. Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay
Children often look to their caregiver for basic needs such as safety and modeling for
self-regulation. Research shows that a risk in one of those areas can impact the development of
THE IMPACT OF WITNESSING DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN 8
the other, and the need for consistent caregiving in a non-violent environment is crucial for
development (Howell et al, 2016). The relationship of a caregiver has traditionally been one of
love, support, and nurturance, unfortunately the effects of domestic violence can interrupt that
bond, and damage the relationship.
Child witnesses of domestic violence are more likely to experience health problems
(Chamberlain, 2001). Previous studies have shown general behavioral, cognitive, and emotional
implications when children are exposed to DV or IPV including; irritability, sleep problems, fear
of being alone, immaturity, language development, poor concentration, aggressiveness, antisocial
behaviors, anxiety, depression, violence behaviors, low frustration tolerance, problems eating,
and being passive or withdrawn (McGee, 2000; Elderson, 1999; Holt, 2015). Infants tend to also
have sleeping and feeding disorders which can lead to poor weight gain (McFarlane et al., 2003).
When children reach preschool age, and are witnessing domestic violence, they
commonly show withdrawn social behaviors, have heightened anxiety and are more fearful
(Hornor, 2005). Unfortunately, when children reach school-age, the effects of witnessing
domestic violence can impact their educational abilities (Hornor, 2005). In a noted study, it was
found that children whose parents reported partner violence performed on average 12.2
percentile points lower than children whose parents reported no IPV in the home (Peek-Asa,
Maxwell, Stromquist, Whitten, Limbos & Merchant, 2007). In boys, the effects of witnessing
domestic violence can be seen through externalized behaviors such as aggressiveness or
disobedience, where girls tend to show more internalized behaviors such as anxiety and
depression (Meltzer et al., 2009).  Intimate Partner Violence/Substance Abuse Project Essay

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