Question 1 of 25 0. 4/ 0. 4 Points Theories are vital tools because they D. provide organizing frameworks for our observations of children. Question 2 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points The stage concept assumes that change is A. development is a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with. B. change is fairly sudden rather than gradual and ongoing. C. infants and preschoolers respond to the world in much the same way as adults do. D. development is a smooth, continuous process. Question 3 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points Dr. Kudrow views development as open to change in response to influential experiences.
Dr. Kudrow probably emphasizes A. plasticity. B. stages. C. stability. D. heredity. Question 4 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points The most consistent asset of resilient children is A. being identified as gifted. B. a strong bond to a competent, caring adult. C. access to high-quality child care. D. high self-esteem. Question 5 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points Which of the following is true about Charles Darwin’s contribution to developmental theories? A. He proved that the development of the human child following the same general plan as the evolution of the human species. B.
He launched the normative approach, in which measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development. C. He proved that human development is a genetically determined process that unfolds automatically, much like a flower. D. Scientific child study was born out of his first attempts to document an idea about development. Question 6 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon’s intelligence test was developed as a way to A. measure individual differences in development as a function of race, gender, and birth order.
B. accurately predict school achievement and vocational success. C. identify children with learning problems who needed to be placed in special classes. D. document developmental improvements in children’s intellectual functioning. Question 7 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points Which of the following is a reason the psychoanalytic perspective is no longer in the mainstream of child development research? A. Psychoanalytic theorists become isolated from the rest of the field because they failed to consider the early parent-child relationship. B.
Many psychoanalytic ideas, such as ego functioning, are too vague to be tested empirically. C. Psychoanalytic theorists accept the clinical method in which age-related averages are computed to represent typical development. D. Modern researchers have demonstrated that personality development does not take place in stages. Question 8 of 25 0. 4/ 0. 4 Points When John Watson taught Albert, an 11-month-old infant, to fear a neutral stimulus by presenting it several times with a sharp, loud sound, Watson applied _____________________ to children’s behavior. A. classical conditioning. Question 9 of 25 0. / 0. 4 Points Every time 10-month-old Rita eats a pea, her father claps and says, “Good girl! ” In response to her father’s praise, Rita excitedly eats the remaining peas. Rita’s behavior is an example of ____________. A. operant conditioning. Question 10 of 25 0. 4/ 0. 4 Points At home, Paul’s parents hit him as punishment for misbehavior. At preschool, Paul angrily hits a playmate who takes his toy. According to social learning theory, Paul is displaying ________________. D. observational learning. Question 11 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points Both behaviorism and social learning theory have been criticized for
A. presenting ideas that are too vague to test empirically. B. underestimating children’s contributions to their own development. C. overestimating children’s contributions to their own development. D. emphasizing nature over nurture. Question 12 of 25 0. 4/ 0. 4 Points According to Piaget’s theory, in the sensorimotor stage, children D. think by acting on the world with their eyes, ears, hands, and mouth. Question 13 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points Which of the following is a limitation of Piaget’s theory? A. Piaget’s stagewise account overemphasizes social and cultural influences on development. B.
He overestimated the competencies of infants and young children. C. Adolescents generally reach their full intellectual potential in all areas, regardless of education and experience. D. Children’s performance on Piagetian problems can be improved with training. Question 14 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points Both Piaget’s theory and the information-processing perspective A. focus on the development of imagination and creativity. B. regard perception, memory, and problem solving as similar at all ages. C. regard children as active beings who modify their own thinking in response to environmental demands.
D. emphasize the importance of equilibration in producing higher levels of thinking. Question 15 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points Sociocultural theory, ethology, ecological systems theory, and dynamic system theory all focus on A. contexts for development. B. children’s biological makeup. C. the adaptive value of behavior. D. how culture is transmitted to the next generation. Question 16 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points According to Vygotsky’s theory, A. today’s lifestyles differ so radically from those of our evolutionary ancestors that certain evolved behaviors are no longer adaptive. B. hildren revise incorrect ideas in their ongoing efforts to achieve equilibrium between internal structures and every-day information. C. social interaction is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community’s culture. D. children shape their own development during both sensitive and critical developmental periods. Question 17 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points Which of the following behaviors is consistent with Vygotsky’s theory? A. Yesica, a child candy seller with no schooling, develops sophisticated mathematical abilities as a result of her work. B.
When his mother takes him to the grocery store, Tom is well-behaved because he knows that his mother will reward him with candy. C. When playing in her sandbox, Amy builds the same sort of castle that she observed her best friend building yesterday. D. When working on her math homework, Michelle tries several solutions before she arrives at the correct answer. Question 18 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, the __________ encompasses connections between microsystems, such as home, school, and neighborhood. C. mesosystem Question 19 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points
Which of the following recent theoretical perspectives can best explain why Easton never crawled on his hands and knees before he learned how to walk? A. evolutionary developmental psychology B. dynamic systems perspective C. ecological systems theory D. sociocultural theory Question 20 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points Both _____________ and _____________ stress changes in thinking. A. cognitive-developmental theory; information-processing theory B. ethology; psychoanalytic theory C. dynamic systems theory; ecological systems theory D. behaviorism; social learning theory Question 21 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points
Which of the following is true about structured observation? A. It permits greater control over the research situation than does naturalistic observation. B. It provides rich, descriptive insights into processes of development of one individual. C. It is especially useful for studying behaviors commonly seen in everyday life. D. It usually takes place in a field, or natural environment, rather than in the laboratory. Question 22 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points Dr. Snyder used the clinical method to obtain a richly detailed case narrative about Charlie, a 10-year-old college student. Dr. Snyder should be aware that A. he information will help him understand the cultural group to which Charlie belongs. B. he cannot assume that his conclusions apply, or generalize, to anyone other than Charlie. C. information collected using the clinical method cannot offer insight into factors affecting development. D. ethical guidelines will limit their contact to one or two sessions. Question 23 of 25 0. 4/ 0. 4 Points A correlation of +. 55 between preschool attendance and self-esteem indicates that children who attend preschool have D. moderately higher self-esteem scores than children who do not attend preschool. Question 24 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points
In an effort to overcome some of the limitations of traditional developmental designs, Dr. Francisco used the ___________ design. A. experimental B. correlational C. sequential D. longitudinal Question 25 of 25 0. 0/ 0. 4 Points When children take part in research, the ethical concerns are especially complex because A. children do not have the same privacy rights as adults. B. immaturity makes it difficult for children to evaluate themselves what participation in research will mean. C. while adults are more vulnerable to psychological harm, children are sometimes exploited. D. children are less vulnerable than adults to physical harm.
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