Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

1) Minimum 8 full pages (Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum three paragraphs per page)

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Part 2: minimum 1 page

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All paragraphs must be narrative and cited in the text- each paragraphs

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Answer the question objectively, do not make introductions to your answers, answer it when you start the paragraph

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4) Minimum 5 references per part not older than 5 years

5) Identify your answer with the numbers, according to the question.


Q 1. Nursing is XXXXX

Q 2. Health is XXXX

6) You must name the files according to the part you are answering:


Part 1.doc

Part 2.doc Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

Part 1: Tuberculosis

Write a paper in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease.

Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment (This pages must be in the references).


1. Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence).

a. Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc.

2.. Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.

3. Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors.

a. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population? Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

4. Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.

5. Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.

6. Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.

Part 2:

Issue: Infection Control and Prevention

Topics: Cleaning and disinfection; Standards precaution and Cross-contamination

Place: University Plaza Nursing and Rehabilitation center

Review your strategic plan (check File 1) to implement the change proposal, the objectives, the outcomes, and listed resources (Check File 2).

1. Develop a process to evaluate the intervention if it were implemented. Write a summary of the evaluation plan that will be used to evaluate your intervention.

The increasing urge for infection prevention and control in healthcare has led to the development of new technology for this purpose. These technologies have improved the situation and many infectious diseases have been prevented. Cross-contamination in hospitals is caused by contaminated devices which are believed that washing alone has been suboptimal and needs a backup with this new technology. Some of these technologies include; room cleaning records, fluorescent markers, antimicrobial markers, and antimicrobial textiles, and hand hygiene monitoring technology (Lin et.al, 2020). Epidemiology And Nursing Essay
The facility staff can support the disinfection and cleaning through making water and detergents available in each room in the facility. They should put posters in each entry to urge people to clean and sterilize their crucial hands and their advantages. The staff as a stakeholder should also buy equipment that makes disinfection and cleaning faster like ultrasonic cleaners, washer-sanitizers, and washer-decontaminators (Chowdhary, Voss & Meis, 2016). Other stakeholders include the government which should ensure sufficient funds for the facility to allow them to purchase the required equipment. When the best equipment is used, it reduces the risk of infection and disease spread. Equipment issued by Non-governmental organizations as stakeholders should also be put in practice to ensure prevention and control of infections. Other stakeholders are the customers and should be educated about the advantages and disadvantages of cleaning and disinfection in disease and infection control and prevention (Hutahaean, Anggraini, & Nababan, 2019)
Using this technology in a health care facility can improve the quality of services aimed at the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Detecting those health care workers who do not adhere to the handwashing guidelines as they enter and exit patient areas will help in warning. This is to remind them that hand washing and disinfecting is the most essential way in disease prevention and control.

The project research will focus on infection control and prevention in health care facilities to help them achieve effective implementation of the infection control and prevention program. Hospital-acquired infections are one of the main concerns that worry clinicians and the patients admitted to the hospital (Mehta et al. 2014). In consideration of the mortality rate and the increased length of admission days and hospital costs, it is important to implement infection control and prevention programs to make hospitals infection-free facilities (Arefian, Vogel, Kwetkat & Hartmann, 2016). This capstone project’s main objectivEpidemiology And Nursing Essay e is to use evidence-based clinical practices strategy to find measures in healthcare facilities leadership that can assist in infection control and prevention program. The project’s purpose will be to reduce challenges the healthcare sanitation staff faces in the process of infection control and prevention through the assistance of the management or leaders in healthcare facilities. This project’s topic falls under leadership since it is the responsibility of healthcare facility management to ensure that there are proper sanitation and infection control programs.
The interventions implemented in the project are also leadership-based since they will mainly involve implementing administrative measures to ensure that there are proper infection control and prevention programs in healthcare facilities. Some of the administrative measures include implementing policies for reducing contamination sources and ensuring enough workforce in the infection control team. It is anticipated that through spreading the strategies of infection control and prevention with the leadership’s assistance in healthcare facilities, the increasing rate of hospital-acquired infection will reduce, and there will be better sanitation management in healthcare facilities (Bert, Giacomelli, Ceresetti & Zotti, 2019). Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

Arefian, H., Vogel, M., Kwetkat, A., & Hartmann, M. (2016). Economic evaluation of interventions for the prevention of hospital-acquired infections: a systematic review. PloS one, 11(1), e0146381.
Bert, F., Giacomelli, S., Ceresetti, D., & Zotti, C. M. (2019). World Health Organization framework: multimodal hand hygiene strategy in Piedmont (Italy) health care facilities. Journal of Patient Safety, 15(4), 317.
Mehta, Y., Gupta, A., Todi, S., Myatra, S. N., Samaddar, D. P., Patil, V., … & Ramasubban, S. (2014). Guidelines for the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Indian journal of critical care medicine: peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine, 18(3), 149.

This assignment will identify and explain what epidemiology is and describe how epidemiologists collect and analyse specific data. It will then identify a number of aspects of the science and then look a disease and see how epidemiologist’s data was used to influence health promotion.

What is Epidemiology?
Epidemiology is the ‘science concerned with the study of the factors determining and influencing the frequency and distribution of disease, injury, and other health-related events and their causes in a defined human population. Also, the sum of knowledge gained in such a study’. Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

There are two main types of Epidemiology. The first one is descriptive which describes the occurrence of the disease according to people, place and time and the second is analytic which determines the causation, risk factors for health, disease and association.

Descriptive epidemiology describes and investigates the scale of the problem. This is the amount of people that have developed or caught the disease over a specified period. e.g. in 2004 there were 44,659 cases of newly diagnosed breast cancer in the UK. From this epidemiologists would look at the prevalence, the number of people that have the disease or condition at any particular time. e.g. the number of people who are regular smokers within a specified time period. The next factor is to look at how the condition is spread. This is done by analysing categories such as age, gender, socioeconomic class and ethnicity e.g. women from lower social classes are much more likely to smoke than women in higher social classes.

Examples of questions asked to collect this data are as follows:

What are the health problems?
How many people are affected?
Who is affected?
Which communities are affected and why?
What are the trends?
Answers to these questions can indicate if primary prevention is possible and it can show the seriousness of the problem and how individuals and communities may be affected.

Analytical epidemiology aims to answer the question, why did it happen? This is done by identifying and determining the causes and risk factors for health and disease. Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

Comparisons have to be made between groups with or without the disease and between groups exposed and not exposed to a possible causal factor.

Causation can show if there is a link from a certain disease to environmental influences, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. To find the cause, epidemiologists can use inferential statistics to draw inferences about apopulationfrom arandom sample. From analysing the results and assessing the risks, a link between events and contributory factors can be draw and this can vary from negligible to high.

Assessing the needs and analysing the data

The first step in planning health promotion is to assess the needs and this consists of two elements. Firstly are the health service needs, which are determined from health data such as occurrence, frequency, mortality and morbidity. Secondly is the community determined needs covering issues that individuals and communities have brought to the attention of the local authority, politicians and letters etc. Sometimes these two elements overlap but it is important to identify which are priorities for communities.

Health data is analysed according to who has been affected and this shows which communities are affected the most so that resources can be allocated. From this information about prevention begin. Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

Primary prevention consists of trying to keep people healthy and free from disease such as immunization and encouragement of healthy lifestyles. Secondary prevention tries to identify the disease and persuade people to go for treatment at the earliest opportunity. Examples could be a cough that could lead to tuberculosis or a fever that could lead to influenza. In some conditions once the disease has developed it can often be too late, so one of the key roles of health promotion is to encourage screening i.e. breast cancer. Tertiary prevention involves actions if the disease has become very serious. This is to promote recovery and focus on rehabilitation to help speed the recovery. An example of primary prevention would be lung cancer as it is know what causes it, but it is not suitable for breast cancer as the causes are not yet known. Prevention can only take place if the causes can be established.


Epidemiologists need to establish causes and to look at many factors such as the environment, society and individuals. They also need to find out what causes the cause as there can be a whole chain of causal factors triggering a chain of events.

These study designs are used for finding out possible causes, although they do not prove causal relationships as they just look at associations. Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

There are two types of analytical study designs. The first is group one which are used for finding out possible causes. Ecological studies compare studies of a particular disease in different communities to try to ascertain the cause.

Cross-sectional studies sample a section of society at one particular time to see if there are common characteristics between people. Case control studies compare a sample of people with a disease to a sample without and a conclusion can be drawn to see if characteristics are more likely to be found in people with the disease. Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

Group two analytical studies are stronger design studies which are used to provide evidence for causal relationships. Cohort studies, also known as prospective or longitudinal studies are when a large sample of the population is followed over a long period of time to monitor their lifestyle and exposure to the risks. From this, the incidence of the disease can be followed to look for causal risks. Examples of this are following a sample of the population for fifty years to see if there is a link between smoking and lung cancer. Intervention study involves exposing a random selection of people to a health promotion trial to find out if the if intervention has health benefits and then to compare the results to a group of people who have not. Results can be analysed to establish if there are key variable such as income, age, distribution, etc. Relative or attributable risk provides a measure of the strength of a causal relationship. Decisions can be made from this as to how many lives could be saved if the causal factor was removed. Epidemiologists have also to work out which are confounding factors, ones that can appear to be associated with a disease but are not a causal.

From all the information and studies undertaken there has to be a systematic review to identify which studies have strong conclusions. From the evidence, reasons can be worked out for showing the causes of health problems and disease and an action plan for health promotion can be set out. Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

Epidemiology is an essential key discipline in health promotion and unless the specific factors that cause a health problem are identified, action cannot be taken to prevent it and promote health.

Swine flu and Epidemiology
What are the health problems?
In the case of swine flu, dry cough, sore throat, headache and fatigue are the most common associated symptoms. Typically patients will have a fever over 38C. Most people recover in a week without any specific treatment.

How many are affected
In swine flu the number of cases in the UK rose quickly after the first established cases in Scotland. By May 312009, there were 252 confirmed cases in the UK.Seventy of these had been to Mexico or the US seven days prior to infection, and 178 reported that they had not been abroad. Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

Who is affected?
In the case of swine flu, in the first months of its outbreak in the UK, it mostly affected young people, and was most commonly spread through contact at schools. These findingsare based on an analysis ofthe first 252 cases of the disease diagnosed in the UK after news of the virus broke

What are the trends?
Of the 168 who contracted the infection it was established the likely place of viral transmission: 60% had been acquired in school; 25% from a household environment; Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

8% in the community; 1% (two cases) acquired in the workplace; Less than 1% (one case) in a healthcare environment; 5% acquired elsewhere. (nhs.uk)

Which communities are affected and why?
People of all genders and ages, including infants and the elderly were developing the disease equally. Due to a larger proportion of younger people travelling abroad and being in contact with younger people, the average age of the first 252 infected people was 20 years. Of the 178 first cases in the UK, 22% reported contact with someone who had developed the infection overseas (secondary infection) and 70% reported contact with a secondary case. 7% were not aware that they had contacted anyone (nhs.uk)

Influence on health promotion
The disease was first identified in Mexico in April 2009 and quickly spread round the globe. Initially the HNS had to make the public aware of the health problems through the media and do everything to contain the disease such as closing schools. After a while it was classed as a pandemic and moved from a containment status to treatment status. Generally the disease was fairly mild and was usually more serious in patients with other health problems. Part of the health promotion campaign was to offer antiviral medicines, Tamiflu or Relenza. Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

Another step was to identify who and which communities are affected, and those people that are in high risk groups, as they are more likely to develop to complications. Vulnerable people are those who have lung disease, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, neurological disease and diabetes. Also at risk are people who have had drug treatment, pregnant women, people over 65 and children under five.

A health promotion campaign through the Television and media was used to make these particular groups aware of the potential risks. Swine flu vaccination began in October 2009

The NHS issued information to the public to stop the disease spreading such as good respiratory and hand hygiene i.e. sneezing into a tissue and putting it a bin and to wash your hands and work surfaces at home regularly. Other public health information includes a National Pandemic Flu website and telephone number for the public to call for any information. The public were asked to call their GP if they had flu like symptoms and particularly if they had a serious condition that weakens your immune system, if they are pregnant, have a sick child under one or if the condition suddenly gets worse. The Service assesses the symptoms and if required will provide authorisation to collect antiviral medicine. Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

Carers also have been identified as at risk as they come into contact with the most vulnerable in the community and steps have been taken in the second phase of vaccination to protected them from the risk of infection

The science of epidemiology involves elements of biology, social sciences and ecology and it is therefore it is a bio-social-environmental science focusing on disease in populations. Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

Epidemiology is a key discipline in Health Promotion as is analyses specific factors of a disease. From this data action can be taken to prevent the disease spreading and promote health i.e. smoking and lung cancer, asbestos and cancer, alcohol and liver disease. However, mistakes can be made as some diseases such as heart disease have many influential factors including diet, exercise, smoking, blood pressure and genetic history. Epidemiology is a population science and investigations of health problems in populations have been very important for public health. Its techniques in examining the disease patterns between populations have been widely applied and there is no consensus of the best means to measure health. As epidemiology is a study of populations it does not tailor health promotion needs for the individual and quite often complicated data and government health warnings such ‘eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day’ can be largely ignored by a sceptical public, and therefore destructive activities still persist.

This report has identified what epidemiology is and explained how epidemiologists assess the spread of illness and analyse data collected. It has also listed aspects of epidemiology and stated how they have an influence on health promotion.,Epidemiology And Nursing Essay

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