Endurance Exercise Training & the Heart
Physical training brings a lot of positive effect on human health. In the contemporary society people experience lack of physical activity and this fact has negative impact on their physical state. Endurance training has positive impact on different systems of human organism, including cardiovascular system. Despite the fact that physical training, especially with extreme intensity, can create certain danger for the cardiovascular system, the benefits, which emerged in the result of training significantly exceed risks. Endurance Exercise Training & the Heart
Multiple researches and investigation prove that endurance exercise training bring positive effect to human health in general and cardiovascular system in particular.
Blair in his colleagues made a research in Cooper Heart Clinic in order to study the effect of physical training on human health and mortality rates. In the result of the research, where more than 13,000 men and women took part, the researchers concluded that the measures of physical fitness are strongly correlated with mortality rate (Blaire et al., 1996). According to the results of the investigation people, who undergo regular physical training have less chances to die because of cardiovascular causes or cancer (Blaire et al., 1996). “ Low fitness is an important precursor of mortality. The protective effect of fitness held for smokers and nonsmokers, those with and without elevated cholesterol levels or elevated blood pressure, and unhealthy and healthy persons. Moderate fitness seems to protect against the influence of these other predictors on mortality. Physicians should encourage sedentary patients to become physically active and thereby reduce the risk of premature mortality” (Blaire et al., 1996). The results of the investigation illustrate inverse relations between mortality rate and physical training. Those, who make regular training part of their everyday life live longer and have less chances to get cardiovascular diseases.
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Other researchers also prove information about inverse correlation between phys8ical training and mortality rate. Laukkanen, Lakka and Rauramaa in their research named “Cardiovascular fitness as a predictor of mortality in men and women” also come to the conclusion that physical training decreases the risk of heart diseases and decreases death rate. As state the authors of the research, “The relative risk of overall death in unfit men (maximal oxygen uptake <27.6 mL/kg per minute) was 2.76 (95% confidence interval, 1.43-5.33) (P =.002), and the relative risk of CVD-related death was 3.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-9.56) (P =.05), compared with fit men (maximal oxygen uptake >37.1 mL/kg per minute) after adjusting for age, examination years, smoking, and alcohol consumption” (Laukkanen, Lakka, Brauramaa, 2001). These results illustrate positive impact of physical training on cardiovascular activity. People, who attend physical training usually live longer and less include to certain kind of diseases. Endurance Exercise Training & the Heart
Lavie, Milani and Cassidy performed research in the Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute and investigated the impact of regular exercise and physical activity on different categories of patients. According to the result of their investigation, physical activity has positive effect on different categories of patients. As they note in their research, “A decade of research from the Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute’s cardiopulmonary rehabilitation and exercise training programs demonstrates the benefits of this therapy on coronary risk factors, exercise capacity, cardiopulmonary parameters, behavioral characteristics, and quality of life in various subgroups of patients… (Lavie et al., 1999). Exercise training programs have strong positive effect on patients with cardiovascular diseases. In addition, exercise become extremely useful in preventing cardiological diseases. In addition, regular physical training has strong positive effect on CAD risk factor, moral and emotional state and exercise capacity (Lavie et al., 1999). Endurance Exercise Training & the Heart
At the same time, it is worth to remember that extensive physical exercises can have negative effect on human health. This is especially try for patients with cardiological diseases. Different reports, including ones, published in the New England Journal of Medicine give data which proves that extensive physical load can become the reason of myocardial infraction (MI) or even cardiac death (Albert et al., 2000). The results of the research illustrate that from 6% to 17% of sudden deaths occur because of exertion (Albert et al., 2000). At the same time, these facts are true only for excessive training, while same research proves that moderate and regular exercise has positive effect on heart function and other health characteristics. Regular physical exercise reduces cardiac events and mortality level. Unfortunately, during the recent time cases of sudden deaths, caused by extensive physical load got public attention, caused by media coverage. At the same time, it is important to remember about the cause and effect and be aware about the impact of different kinds of physical activity and their impact on human health in general and cardiovascular diseases in particular. Information about health problems and even sudden death, which becomes available during the recent time, is often provided without necessary framing. This media coverage may become the reason of wrong perception of impact of physical training on human health. At the same time, a lot of researches prove that regular exercises of adequate load have strong positive impact on different systems of human organism. In addition, they are absolutely safe and different theoretical and practical researches prove this thesis. Rare cases of negative effect of physical training are significantly outweighed by positive outcomes most people get in the process of training. Endurance Exercise Training & the Heart
Wannamethee, Shaper and Walker in the research named “Physical activity and mortality in older men with diagnosed coronary heart disease» investigated connection between different types of physical activity and health state of different kind of patients with coronary heart disease. The results illustrate strong positive impact of moderate physical activity on the health state of the patients. As the authors write in the conclusion to their research, “Men sedentary at Q1 who began at least light activity by Q92 showed lower mortality rates on follow-up than those who remained sedentary (relative risk 0.58, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.03; P:=0.06). Light or moderate activity in men with established CHD is associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality. Regular walking and moderate or heavy gardening were sufficient to achieve this benefit (Wannamethee et al, 2000). At the same time, the results of the research also demonstrated negative effects of extensive training. These results one more time illustrate that intensity of physical exercise have extremely important meaning. People with different kinds of heart problems need to be careful when choosing forms and methods of physical activity. Physical exercise can be extremely beneficial for patients with different cardiovascular problems. At the same time, overload and extreme intensity of the training can have negative impact on their health and can result even in deathly accidents. Exercise prescriptions and advices of healthcare professionals could be extremely helpful in creating a training plan for people with different kinds of heart problems.
Endurance exercise training in general have positive impact on cardiovascular system. They also have positive effect on other systems of human organism. At the same time, wrong choice of exercise intensity and physical overload, combined by irregular practice of the sport activity may have negative consequences on human health. Multiple researches prove that moderate and regular physical activity has extremely positive impact on the health state of patients with cardio diseases. Endurance Exercise Training & the Heart
Albert C. M., Mittleman M. A., Chae C. U. Triggering of sudden death from cardiac causes by vigorous exertion. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1355–1361.
Blair S. N., Kampert J. B., Kohl H. W., 3rd Influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and other precursors on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men and women. JAMA. 1996;276:205–210.
Laukkanen J. A., Lakka T. A., Rauramaa R. Cardiovascular fitness as a predictor of mortality in men. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:825–831
Lavie C. J., Milani R. V., Cassidy M. M. Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, exercise training, and preventive cardiology: an overview of a decade of research at the Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute. Ochsner Journal. 1999;1:177–186.
Wannamethee S. G., Shaper A. G., Walker M. Physical activity and mortality in older men with diagnosed coronary heart disease. Circulation. 2000;102:1358–1363. Endurance Exercise Training & the Heart
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