Now adays there are many crimes doesn’t solve because of some public or private building doesn’t have a CCTV to monitor the peace and order of the place. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point (P2P), point to multipoint, or mesh wireless links.
Though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, casinos, airports, military installations, and convenience stores. Video telephony is seldom called “CCTV” but the use of video in distance education, where it is an important tool, is often so called. In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event.
A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing digital video recorders (DVRs), provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features (such as motion-detection and email alerts). More recently, decentralized IP-based CCTV cameras, some equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for completely stand-alone operation. A. Research Backgrounds HISTORY The first CCTV system was installed by Siemens AG at Test Stand VII in Peenemunde, Germany in 1942, for observing the launch of V-2 rockets.
The noted German engineer Walter Bruch was responsible for the technological design and installation of the system. In the U. S. the first commercial closed-circuit television system became available in 1949, called Vericon. Very little is known about Vericon except it was advertised as not requiring a government permit. CCTV recording systems are still often used at modern launch sites to record the flight of the rockets, in order to find the possible causes of malfunctions, while larger rockets are often fitted with CCTV allowing pictures of stage separation to be transmitted back to earth by radio link.
The history of CCTV in the United States varies from that of the United Kingdom. One of its first appearances was in 1973 in Times Square in New York City. The NYPD installed it in order to deter crime that was occurring in the area however crime rates did not appear to drop much due to the cameras. Nevertheless, during the 1980s video surveillance began to spread across the country specifically targeting public areas. It was seen as a cheaper way to deter crime compared to increasing the size of the police departments. Some businesses as well, especially those that were prone to theft, began to use video surveillance.
During the 1990s digital multiplexing, which allowed for several cameras at once to record, and introduced time lapse and motion only recording, increased the use of CCTV across the country and increased the savings of time and money. From the mid 1990s on, police departments across the country installed an increasing number of cameras in various public spaces including housing projects, schools and public parks departments. Following the September 11 attacks, the use of video surveillance has become a common occurrence in the country to deter future terrorist attacks.
In September 1968, Olean, New York was the first city in the United States to install video cameras along its main business street in an effort to fight crime. CCTV later became very common in banks and stores to discourage theft, by recording evidence of criminal activity. Their use further popularized the concept. The first place to use CCTV in the United Kingdom was King’s Lynn, Norfolk. In recent decades, especially with general crime fears growing in the 1990s and 2000s, public space use of surveillance cameras has taken off, especially in some countries such as the United Kingdom.
USES Crime prevention The two year-old James Bulger being led away by his killers, recorded on shopping centre CCTV. Experiments in the UK during the 1970s and 1980s (including outdoor CCTV in Bournemouth in 1985), led to several larger trial programs later that decade. These were deemed successful in the government report “CCTV: Looking out for you”, issued by the Home Office in 1994, and paved the way for a massive increase in the number of CCTV systems installed. Today, systems cover most town and city centers, and many stations, car-parks and estates.
A more recent analysis by Northeastern University and the University of Cambridge, “Public Area CCTV and Crime Prevention: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” examined 44 different studies that collectively surveyed areas from the United Kingdom to U. S. cities such as Cincinnati and New York. The analysis found that: 1. Surveillance systems were most effective in parking lots, where their use resulted in a 51% decrease in crime; 2. Public transportation areas saw a 23% decrease in crimes; 3. Systems in public settings were the least effective, with just a 7% decrease in crimes overall.
When sorted by country, however, systems in the United Kingdom accounted for the majority of the decrease; the drop in other areas was insignificant. The results from the above 2009 “Public Area CCTV and Crime Prevention: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”, are somewhat controversial. Earlier similar meta-analysis completed by Welsh and Farrington in 2002 showed similar results: a significant decrease in car park crime (41%), and a non-significant decrease of crime in public transit and public places.
This study was criticized for the inclusion of confounding variables (e. . notification of CCTV cameras on site, improved street lighting) found in the studies analyzed (including car park studies). These factors could not be teased apart from the effect of CCTV cameras being present or absent while crimes were being committed. Thus, a combination of factors might be important for the decrease in crime not just the CCTV cameras. The 2009 study admitted to similar problems as well as issues with the consistency of the percentage of area covered by CCTV cameras within the tested sites (e. g. car parks have more cameras per square inch than public transit).
There is still much research to be done to determine the effectiveness of CCTV cameras on crime prevention before any conclusions can be drawn. There is strong anecdotal evidence that CCTV aids in detection and conviction of offenders; indeed UK police forces routinely seek CCTV recordings after crimes. Moreover CCTV has played a crucial role in tracing the movements of suspects or victims and is widely regarded by antiterrorist officers as a fundamental tool in tracking terrorist suspects. Large-scale CCTV installations have played a key part of the defenses against terrorism since the 1970s.
Cameras have also been installed on public transport in the hope of deterring crime, and in mobile police surveillance vans, often with automatic number plate recognition, and a network of APNI-linked cameras is used to manage London’s congestion charging zone. Even so there is political hostility to surveillance and several commentators downplay the evidence of CCTV’s effectiveness, especially in the US. However, most of these assertions are based on poor methodology or imperfect comparisons. A more open question is whether most CCTV is cost-effective.
While low-quality domestic kits are cheap the professional installation and maintenance of high definition CCTV is expensive. Gill and Spring did a cost-benefit analysis of CCTV in crime prevention that showed little monetary saving with the installation of CCTV as most of the crimes prevented resulted in little monetary loss. It was however noted that benefits of non-monetary value cannot be captured in a traditional cost-benefit analysis and were omitted from their study. To get a full understanding of the costs and benefits of CCTV in crime prevention these factors would have to be included.
A 2008 Report by UK Police Chiefs concluded that only 3% of crimes were solved by CCTV. In London, a Metropolitan Police report showed that in 2008 only one crime was solved per 1000 cameras. In some cases CCTV cameras have become a target of attacks themselves. On July 22, 2005, Jean Charles de Menezes was shot dead by police at Stockwell tube station. According to brother Giovani Menezes, “The film showed that Jean did not have suspicious behavior”. Because of the bombing attempts the previous day, some of the tapes had been supposedly removed from CCTV cameras for study, and they were not functional.
An ongoing change to DVR-based technology may in future stop similar problems occurring. In October 2009, an “Internet Eyes” website was announced which would pay members of the public to view CCTV camera images from their homes and report any crimes they witnessed. The site aimed to add “more eyes” to cameras which might be insufficiently monitored, but civil liberties campaigners criticized the idea as “a distasteful and a worrying development”. Prevalence An article published in CCTV Image magazine estimates that the number of cameras in the UK is 1. 5 million. The number is based on extrapolating from a comprehensive survey of public and private cameras within the Cheshire Constabulary jurisdiction. This works out as an average of one camera for every 32 people in the UK, although the density of cameras varies greatly from place to place. The Cheshire report also claims that the average person on a typical day would be seen by 70 CCTV cameras. The Cheshire figure is regarded as more dependable than a previous study by Michael McCahill and Clive Norris of Urban Eye published in 2002.
Based on a small sample in Putney High Street, McCahill and Norris estimated the number of surveillance cameras in private premises in London at around 500,000 and the total number of cameras in the UK at around 4,200,000. According to their estimate the UK has one camera for every 14 people. Although it has been acknowledged for several years that the methodology behind this figure is somewhat dubious, it has continued to be quoted in the absence of a better figure. The CCTV User Group estimates that there are around 1. 5 million CCTV cameras in city centers, stations, airports, major retail areas and so forth.
This figure does not include the smaller surveillance systems such as those that may be found in local corner shops and is therefore broadly in line with the Cheshire report. Research conducted by the Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research and based on a survey of all Scottish local authorities, identified that there are over 2,200 public space CCTV cameras in Scotland. Hacking and video art Hackers and guerrilla artists have exposed the vulnerabilities of the video systems in an act dubbed “video sniffing” They have crossed feeds, uploaded their own video feeds and used the video footage for artistic purposes. Industrial processes
Industrial processes that take place under conditions dangerous for humans are today often supervised by CCTV. These are mainly processes in the chemical industry, the interior of reactors or facilities for manufacture of nuclear fuel. Special cameras for some of these purposes include line-scan cameras and thermo graphic cameras which allow operators to measure the temperature of the processes. The usage of CCTV in such processes is sometimes required by law. Traffic monitoring Many cities and motorway networks have extensive traffic-monitoring systems, using closed-circuit television to detect congestion and notice accidents.
Many of these cameras however, are owned by private companies and transmit data to drivers’ GPS systems. The UK Highways Agency has a publicly owned CCTV network of over 1,200 cameras covering the English motorway and trunk road network. These cameras are primarily used to monitor traffic conditions and are not used as speed cameras. With the addition of fixed cameras for the Active Traffic Management system, the number of cameras on the Highways Agency’s CCTV network is likely to increase significantly over the next few years.
The London congestion charge is enforced by cameras positioned at the boundaries of and inside the congestion charge zone, which automatically read the license plates of cars. If the driver does not pay the charge then a fine will be imposed. Similar systems are being developed as a means of locating cars reported stolen. Other surveillance cameras serve as traffic enforcement cameras. Transport safety A CCTV system may be installed where an operator of a machine cannot directly observe people who may be injured by some unexpected machine operation.
For example, on a subway train, CCTV cameras may allow the operator to confirm that people are clear of doors before closing them and starting the train. Operators of an amusement park ride may use a CCTV system to observe that people are not endangered by starting the ride. A CCTV camera and dashboard monitor can make reversing a vehicle safer, if it allows the driver to observe objects or people not otherwise visible. Advantages and Disadvantages of CCTV Cameras CCTV camera system is being widely employed as a security system for surveillance in offices as well as homes.
It is used for monitoring purposes to keep a close vigil. Not only in closed or private places; CCTV camera system extends as a security system in public and crowded places like traffic intersections, malls, shops, etc. As with the case of any technology or security system device, a CCTV camera system has its own pros and cons. Advantages of CCTV Camera System 1. Deters Crime The presence of CCTV camera system for surveillance will reduce petty thefts and vandalism in shops, malls and other public places. Since the activities are being monitored, fewer nuisances are likely to be created.
It also reduces the losses due to shoplifting. 2. Helps Maintain Records The images and videos captured by a CCTV camera system are often recorded and stored into a database. These are helpful in maintaining records so that they can be easily retrieved later, when needed. 3. Protects Employees This is particularly helpful in customer service centers. The employees providing customer service may sometimes be subjected to verbal abuse or physical attacks. CCTV camera system helps to identify such instances and act immediately.
It is also helpful to keep a tab on the activities of the employees. . For Evidence in Lawsuits In legal cases of thefts and other forms of crime, videos and images provided by the CCTV camera system can serve as a valid proof and evidence against the defaulter. This assists in making legal claims as well. Disadvantages of CCTV Camera System 1. Do Not Work Always CCTV camera system cannot monitor every area of your office or home at all times. Hence it cannot be considered as a foolproof method for crime prevention. 2. Privacy Concerns Invasion of privacy is the major issue when it comes to any security system device like the CCTV camera system.
It lowers the employee morale and hampers productivity at times. Constant monitoring of every activity might put the workers ill at ease. 3. Initial Costs The initial costs incurred per camera are high. The installation may also increase the initial expenditure. It depends upon the complexity of the CCTV camera system as well. 4. Limitations A major disadvantage for CCTV cameras is that they can only monitor a limited area.
Criminals can vandalize the cameras in various ways, such as sticking gum or spraying something on the lens. They may even be able to change the angle of the camera. Criticism from the general public is usually about the lack of privacy and high cost to install for personal use. 5. Wireless Systems Wireless systems need a specified frequency for the camera to send signals to the receiving and recording station. Other electric motored products, such as air conditioning, fluorescent lighting and cordless telephones can cause interruptions in the frequencies, affecting the picture quality.
Wireless systems are subject to distortion in image quality, and need experts in wireless technology to identify and repair system breakdowns. Some systems may not be completely wireless, as they require an electric power cable. 6. Wired Systems Wired CCTV systems have the disadvantage of being fixed to a particular area, meaning the camera can’t simply change location. The installation and cabling of these cameras is a difficult task that demands the assistance of professionals. 7. Hacking The value of CCTV information has increased, resulting in a higher risk from hackers.
Hacking CCTV footage has led to privacy issues, such as images captured by CCTV of naked women distributed across the Internet. It is not possible to completely protect public security systems from hackers. As the system connects to a network, hackers can hack into the system virtually from outside locations. B. Importance of the Paper C. Statement of the problem 1. Why Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is very important to public and private places? 2. What is the history of the gadget called “Closed-circuit television (CCTV)”. 3. What are the uses of Closed-circuit television (CCTV)? 4.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Closed-circuit television (CCTV)? D. Thesis Statement E. Definition of terms. Video telephony Comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real-time. Surveillance Is the monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting. Surveillance is therefore an ambiguous practice, sometimes creating positive effects, at other times negative.
A digital video recorder (DVR), Sometimes referred to by the merchandising term personal video recorder (PVR), is a consumer electronics device or application software that records video in a digital format to a disk drive, usb flash drive, sd memory card or other local or networked mass storage device. Distance education or distance learning Is a mode of delivering education and instruction, often on an individual basis, to students who are not physically present in a traditional setting such as a classroom. Network-attached storage (NAS)
Is file-level computer data storage connected to a computer network providing data access to a heterogeneous group of clients. NAS not only operates as a file server, but is specialized for this task either by its hardware, software, or configuration of those elements. Summary The growing use of surveillance cameras in today’s society has lead to several privacy issues being raised by The first CCTV cameras in Germany in 1942 dividing by other company, noted by German engineer Walter Bruch was responsible for the technological design and installation of the system.
Therefore, surveillance cameras are used not only by the government but also by individuals and other private firms. The use of such devices have become so commonly used that it has affected our lifestyles in one way or another. They can be seen almost everywhere, in shops, banks, companies, hotels, also in school where our studying and everyday we go and even in private houses. Also technology always has the potential for bad along with the good. A total banning of surveillance cameras is most likely not a viable option today.
However, together with adequate regulations some of the worst consequences could be reduced. Therefore, personally I feel that the use of surveillance cameras should be controlled in Singapore and in the other country. In this case, the term “controlled” means: to use laws to limit the amount or growth of the use of surveillance cameras. It should be allowed when it is used on matters regarding individual’s safety and by the government where they deem fit to install the surveillance cameras.
Ethical issues: Currently, there are no laws in Singapore protecting individuals from the scrutiny of the surveillance cameras. It is unsafe and a severe fire hazard to lock the doors of a school so children cannot leave, but it is possible to keep an eye on them through cameras. For many principles and teachers, having security cameras in the halls to see children coming and going goes beyond finding those who are skipping out on class, it is more about safety and keeping children safe in a sometimes dangerous world.
With cameras outside the school, you can not only monitor the children to make sure there are no injuries in the playground, you can also monitor those around the schoolyard and diffuse a dangerous situation before it happens. If you see someone standing by a fence, or someone talking to the children, you can send a teacher over to asses the situation and deal with the potential problem before it becomes tragic. So CCTV cameras our school will help us incase of emergency that we need to know the person inside the camera that recorded.
CCTV surveillance systems in schools are a way of ensuring a safe, secure and healthy learning environment for children. Always consult with experts to work out the most strategic places to install CCTV cameras in your school, That the CCTV camera system to send the data (Video,Audio) to a monitor. These cameras are designed to transmit the signal to the main hub where data are to be recorded. The modern types of CCTV cameras even allow users to monitor these camera remotely. Others Findings Summary The expectation that CCTV systems should be deployed to reduce crime rather than solve crime has created huge problems. * While the studies show serious doubt on CCTV’s ability to reduce crime generally, a strong consensus exists in CCTV’s ability to reduce premeditative/property crime
* CCTV is consistently treated as a singular, stable technology, obscuring radical technological changes that have occurred in the last 10 years * Differences in per camera costs are largely ignored, preventing policy makers from finding ways to reduce costs * Routine comparison of police s cameras is counterproductive CONCLUSION To conclude the use of CCTV cameras in school has clear benefits. When used in moderation, under the correct guidance, Surveillance cameras can be invaluable in aiding the police in their investigations, as shown by the case studies. CCTV can also act as a twenty-four hour police presence, helping to make the public feel safer. Initially used as a means of crime prevention, CCTV is now used more to help convict criminals. Although the function has changed, the usefulness remains.
If used excessively however, the proliferation can lead to an invasion of privacy and a violation of human rights. The cost of the cameras has also been an issue that has caused many debates as to whether the cost is worth the results. Overall we believe the proliferation of Closed Circuit Television cameras is not necessarily the wisest investment of the taxpayer’s money. There needs to be reform into how the authorities use the existing surveillance cameras to enhance their effectiveness to their impact on crime.
We are all aware that there’s danger anywhere we are today. The streets, and all the public places, are just never safe for everyone. And the saddest part is, we are not only in danger in public places. Now, no one is really safety even at their own homes. Danger is basically found on every part of the planet, they sometimes follow us even in our own bedrooms. This is the reason why CCTV is becoming so popular nowadays. Thanks to the latest technological breakthroughs, we can now sleep soundly knowing that these CCTV Systems are making us and our family safe.
I conclude that our schools are where our children should feel safe. It is where they learn about themselves and the world around them. Sadly, if our past few years are any indication, schools are not the safe places we thought they were, and anything can happen when certain circumstances facilitate a tragic situation. However, there are things that can be done to prevent that from happening, and to keep schools as the safe places they are supposed to be. It comes in the form of surveillance systems.
These systems, which include CCTV security cameras, DVRs, and remote viewing capabilities are changing the way parents, and teachers see the school. While we talk about using surveillance systems to keep schools safe, we are not just talking about school shootings. We are also talking about a parent’s ability to watch their children from afar, with remote viewing, to ensure they are safe as well. Recommendation I recommended the entrance and exit and other entry areas need a good quality, high resolution camera to record a good face shot.
The video from this camera should be considered a highly valuable since it can be used as evidence in identifying a person in a court of law. This is a classic use for Wide Dynamic technology that is designed to capture clear, easy-to-view images under poor or unpredictable lighting conditions. Such as occur near entrance and exit doors of school National Teachers College where the lighting can suddenly change and become brighter or darker. Other Recommended There should be a requirement for CCTV operations to undertake systematic and regular evaluations to re-assure public confidence in the transparency of their processes and their adherence to legislative requirements. It should be possible to create a template of performance indicators and measures to enable a national performance framework to be created.
* When considering who should “own and manage “public-space CCTV in Scotland it is important to maintain public support and understand the fear of a state led “big brother” approach to surveillance. – Decisions on technologies and equipment must allow and support a platform of images and information that can be easily accessed to allow the police service and other partners to respond on a strategic level to major emergencies and the threat of terrorism.
* In principle all cameras, live and operational in the system should be presented to a monitor in the control room all the time with a size / resolution “fit for purpose” * The knowledge base and awareness of CCTV operations to evolving technologies must be developed to ensure that the financial investment and public confidence in surveillance systems is maximized. As a minimum requirement all CCTV control rooms should have access to listen to police radio broadcasts and a national policy on the use of two-way communication should be established. * To promote the model of “one image, many uses” CCTV control centres should have in place formal Information Sharing Protocols with a raft of partner organisations to facilitate information and image sharing within the structures permitted by legislation. * All public space should be appropriately signposted in terms of hours cameras are being watched to both re-assure and inform the public.
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