Camile Faith

1 page AMA format 5.00-discussion response 

in your response to your classmate discuss how the identified threat to validity may affect the study and the potential impact on the findings. 

 Classmates post:

1 day ago

n Kabbashi 

Week 2: Validity discussion


In the article by Boffetta et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk in the European prospective: Investigation to cancer and nutrition [EPIC] it assessed the relationship between the high intake of fruits and vegetable and cancer.

There were potential external and internal validity threats in this cohort study including the followings:

Sample size: There was no equal representation in the study. The number of women in this study was twice then the number male. This is a selection bias and it could affect the result and generalization to the population being studied.

Validity of the dietary: A 24hrs dietary recall affects the validity of the calibration of dietary fruit and vegetable intake because dietary habits my have changed during the study period.

Conclusion: There was a potential threat in the conclusion. It is not possible to conclude that a potential intake of fruits and vegetables reduced or prevented cancer because there are multi variable factors associated with an increase intake of fruits and vegetables that may contribute to the prevention of cancer as well. These include physical activities, minimizing alcohol or smoking.

External validity threats such as time and place were minimized because this study was conducted at least in 23 centers in different places across Europe.

One of my literature chosen for review for my final project “The impact of immigrants on our public health system” Mohanty et al. Analysis of Health care expenditure of immigrants in the United states has potential external and internal validity problems as well. The sampling size posed a potential threat on validity. Since the study aimed to compare the expenditure of health care between immigrants and US born, it should have a fair representation. But the number of US born was twice greater than the number of immigrants. N=18398 US born and there was only 2843 Immigrants selected. There were also other factors that may affect my conclusion and this include cultural barriers and the distinction between immigrants whether they are undocumented or not. There will be bias when it comes to generalization to the immigrants population.


Boffetta et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk in the European prospective: Investigation into cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Retrieved [Jan 13th 2017] from

Jacobsen K. Introduction to Health research Methods: A practical guide. Burlington, MA. Jones & Barlett learning.

Mohanty et al. Health care expenditures of immigrants in the united states: A nationally representative Analysis.

AM J..Public health. 2005;95;1431-1438.doi:10.2105/AJPA.2004.044602

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