Affluence – As is the case in many parts of the developing world, solid waste from rural areas, where people are poorer, has a higher proportion of organic matter, approximately 60 to 75% (Vietnam Environment Monitor 2004. World Bank, MoNRE and CIDA. 65 pp.).
Reduction and segregation at source should be enhanced. It helps take-out food waste for composting (41.9%). Vietnam, for example, is an agricultural country, thereby a big market for compost (Municipal Waste Management Report: Status Quo and Issues in Southeast and East Asian Countries, Part IV, p40).
Due to the statistics that a 70 % of rubbish is put in everyday, recycling could be a beneficial process from this by mixed-waste garbage bin to make compost and mulch. Digging compost into garden soil reduces the need for watering by an average of 30%, and because it acts like a fertilizer there is no need to invest money on fertilizers that contaminate landfills as well. In fact based on figures ?????? the tons of organic waste is ??????? Therefore this could potentially reduce the amount of organic waste to landfill by XY%, therefore reducing the potentially harmful GH gas Methane leaching into the environment.
For this there is some necessary information that it has to be follow in order to get the best result out of this recycling procedure.
Bins should have 225 liters capacity, 76cm high by 58 cm across made of plastic.
What is Bokashi composting
Bokashi composting is a practical procedure base on a bucket and a special mix that working together eliminate the odours associated with putrefaction and decay. From using food waste that only will turn out to contaminate your house and landfill you could make compost and rich juice, that will bring different types of benefits to your house.
Benefits and uses
• Composts all kitchen waste hygienically minus the unpleasant odours and insects
• Waste is conveniently stored indoors – no need to run outside to the compost bin
• Bokashi composting, is rapid, occurring in a matter of weeks.
• It means that less food waste goes into landfill
• No greenhouse gases – especially methane – are released.
• Bokashi composting contributes to cleaning up our waterways. When the juice produced is used in toilets, drains and septic systems, the good bacteria compete with harmful bacteria and algae build-up is prevented
• It reduces your carbon footprint.
• Bokashi compost enriches and rebuilds soil on a microbial level, with the micro-organisms present injecting life and vitality
• It produces a rich juice, which, when diluted, is perfect for natural garden fertilisation
• It saves you money by reducing the need to purchase fertiliser
• Bokashi compost increases the water holding capacity of soil
• Bokashi composting adds nutrients to your soil so, if you grow your own produce, more nutrients in the soil = more nutrients in your food!
How does it work?
Put simply, food waste is layered with Bokashi Mix in a Bokashi Bucket. Due to the air-tight bucket and the micro-organisms present in the Bokashi Mix, the waste ferments. It does not decompose inside the bucket, it reduces in volume as the water content of the waste drains through the grate at the bottom of the bucket.
The Bokashi juice produced is alive with micro-organisms and can be used in the garden and around the home. When the bucket is full, the waste is transferred outside and buried beneath the soil to complete the composting process. Breakdown is rapid thanks to the micro-organisms present in the Bokashi Mix. Bokashi compost supplies soil with nutrients from the waste and more life in the form of the micro-organisms. The Bokashi system significantly accelerates the composting process.
The amount of juice your Bokashi kitchen composting system produces depends on the type of food stored in it; so don’t be concerned if little or no juice is produced. Adding fruit and vegetables tends to increase juice production. Be careful not to add too much Bokashi Mix as this can result in reduced juice creation.
Take care with the tap. Do not unscrew more than ¾ of a turn. If you think the tap is blocked, try clearing with a skewer.
Using the juice
1. IN THE GARDEN
BOKASHI JUICE MUST BE DILUTED PRIOR TO USE IN THE GARDEN. READ ON!
Bokashi juice contains nutrients from the food waste and is alive with micro-organisms so it makes a terrific, free fertiliser!
• To fertilise an existing garden or pot, dilute 1 teaspoon of juice with 2-3 liters of water and apply directly to the soil.
• To ferltilise trees or shrubs, dilute 2 teaspoons with 2-3 liters of water.
Do not apply directly to the foliage.
2. AROUND THE HOME
Put the concentrated Bokashi juice directly into kitchen and bathroom drains, toilets and septic systems. It will help prevent algae build-up and control odour. And as a huge bonus, it contributes to cleaning up our waterways as the good bacteria compete with the bad bacteria!
Bokashi juice cannot be stored and must be used within 24 hours after draining from the bucket.
Helpful hints for maximising your Bokashi OneTM system
? Minimise the amount of rotten or mouldy food waste added to the Bokashi OneTM Bucket.
? Break or chop large waste into smaller pieces.
? Always close the lid tightly and remember to frequently drain the juice that accumulates at the bottom.
? Press down every layer of food waste in the bucket to remove air. Try using a potato masher or a pot lid, or pop your hand into a plastic bag.
? Do not add water or excessive amounts of liquid.
? Do not place the bucket in the sun.
? Wash the bucket well after each use.
? Look into community composting and gardening projects in your area.
? Don’t be afraid to experiment with the process until you get a feel for how this process can work best for you!
EM Effective micro organisms activator
It is a mixed culture of fermentative, soilbased and beneficial micro-organisms that brings benefits to different types of environments.
• Gardening as a soil builder.
• Household Cleaning to exclude and eliminate harmful bacteria.
• Pets / Animals as a probiotic to reduce pet odours and for good health.
• Water purification to reduce algae and harmful bacteria in water.
A really positive aspect of EM is that it doesnt contain any organisms that have been in any way modified. They are species that live naturally in the environment of almost every place in the world and contribute in breaking down the organic matter.
Preparation of EM-Active
Effective Micro-organisms (EM) should be activated before using in the home or garden by
adding water and A+.
Use the following calculation to make 1 Litre of EM Active.
• 50 ml EM
• 50 ml Molasses
• 950 ml Water
= 1 litre EM-Active
• Take a 1-litre measure
• Half-fill the measure with lukewarm water
• Dissolve 50 ml of A+ in the measure, stirring well.
• Stir in 50 ml of EM solution.
• Top up to 1 litre with lukewarm wáter
1. In The Home
• Cleaning with EM. EM is a very acidic solution that re-populates surfaces with beneficial
microbes. The presence of these microbes discourages mould, fungus and harmful
bacteria from taking root.
• EM helps to eliminate odours from pets, cigarette smoke, and odour-causing bacteria,
• A small squirt bottle filled with straight EM is handy to keep by the kitchen sink.
• It can be used to add to water for washing vegetables, to pour down the sink to reduce
odours, and to spray on sponges to keep it fresh and reduce harmful bacteria.
• One teaspoon of EM can be added per load as the washing machine fills with water.
This is recommended for light coloured laundry since the microbes love fabric dyes, and
dark coloured articles have a tendency to fade.) If using EM, reduce detergent to 1/3 the
usual amount. If possible, let the clothes pre-soak for 10-15 minutes before running
through the cycle.
• Use 1 Tbsp of EM to about 5 litres of room temperature water for mopping ceramic tile
or vinyl floors. No detergent is needed. For use on wood floors and furniture, dilute 3/4
tsp. to one 5litres water. Wipe dry immediately.
Add 1 tsp. EM to a litre of water, and spray or wipe on tile, porcelain, and Formica. Let
is stand on wood or plastic cutting boards to discourage salmonella and other harmful
bacteria. Then rinse. This dilution must be used within 3 days.
• Diluted EM can be sprayed lightly in shoes to keep them smelling fresh and on shower
curtains to discourage mould!!
• Clean dustbins & ‘wheelie bins’ with this mixture to reduce odours.
• Use a diluted solution and spray generously on light coloured automobile interior, door
panels, light-coloured upholstery, and carpets to freshen and deodorize.
2. Gardening and Soil Improvement
• Gardening and Soil Improvement EM can be used to inoculate plants, water and soil in
various ways to achieve beneficial results.
• It can be sprayed on soil as a pre-planting treatment, used to inoculate seeds or
transplants, and applied to growing crops as a foliar spray or through irrigation systems.
• EM is useful in growing nursery crops, container-grown plants, and even in hydroponics.
• After crops are harvested, EM is used to help break down crop residues.
• EM can be applied to cover crops and green manures during growth and upon
incorporation into the soil, and is applied to pastures with good results.
• General Directions:
For most crop applications, EM or AEM is diluted with water at a ratio of 1 part EM to
1,000 parts water. Do not apply with pesticides or fungicides. It is best to start on a
small scale and experiment with EM to determine the best methods and ratios for
• Pre-Planting: Between two and three weeks before planting, apply a 1:1000 dilution of
EM to the soil.
• Apply as a spray, drench or introduce into irrigation water.
• Seed Treatment: Gardeners may want to try soaking seeds in a solution of EM before
planting to increase seed viability. Dilute EM with water at 1:1000. Soak seeds in
solution for 5-10 minutes and no longer. Air dry and plant as usual. Experiment with
small batches before treating larger quantities. Weak seeds and soil conditions may
lead to decreased results.
• Nursery / Container-grown Plants: Inoculate with EM at seeding and transplant stages,
then on a monthly basis thereafter. Use the standard dilution of 1:1000.
• Orchid growers have achieved good results by inoculating with EM immediately after
planting in sterile media.
• Hydroponics: In hydroponic crop production systems, EM can be diluted with the
nutrient solution at a rate of 1:10,000. This practice will coat the root systems with
beneficial micro-organisms and make nutrient uptake more efficient.
• Vegetables, Fruits & Herbs: Spray the standard dilution of 1:1000 onto the plants.
• If introducing EM into an irrigation system, the dilution should be increased to 1:10,000.
• Apply as a pre-planting treatment, again at planting/transplanting and every three to four
weeks during crop growth.
• Apply also to crop residues after harvest, just before incorporating residues into the soil.
Use 1 gallon of activated EM per acre, diluted with the appropriate amount of water for
Subject:Sustainable DesignSubject Code:HES1115aStudent Names:Student Number:Nick Viney1471414Harry StormRosanna HomaidYusif
List of Abbreviation and Acronyms 4
1. Introduction: 5
Burying the Bokashi waste 27
Bokashi Mix 29
Table of Figures
Figure 1: An above average house in Can Thao – Mekong Delta (Photo courtesy Nick Viney) 5
Figure 2: From top left to right: Mining the Mekong for River Sand. Locals bathing and washing clothes in the Mekong River and Selling produce at the floating markets. (Photos courtesy Nick Viney). 6
Figure 3: Value of Recyclable materials in Hai Phong, Vietnam 11
Figure 4: A snap shot of how households are disposing of Solid Waste (Vietnam Living Standards Survey, 2010) 11
Figure 5: How Incomes affect Disposal methods of Solid Waste (Vietnam Living Standards Survey, 2010). 12
Figure 6: How men and women differ in the disposal methods of Solid Waste (Vietnam Living Standards Survey, 2010). 12
Figure 7: Waste Disposal by Industry Sector 13
List of Abbreviation and Acronyms
MW – Municipal Waste
MSW – Municipal Solid Waste
WHO – World Health Organisation
VEPA – Vietnam Environmental Protection Authority
CLIA – Central Lack of Intelligence Agency
MoNRE – Minister of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam
PBDE’s – Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether
VND & AUD – Vietnamese Dong and Australian Dollar
SE – South East
AIT – Asian Institute of Technology
UNEP – United Nations Environment Programme
GHG – Greenhouse Gas
TMC – Toyota Motor Corporation
TPS – Toyota Production System
SME’s – Small to Medium Enterprises
EWB – Engineers Without Boarders
1.1. Why do we care?
Every human being deserves to be given the opportunity to live with dignity and not to be subjected to the hardships that poverty and deprivation bestow upon those who have no means of effectively changing what needs to be changed due to circumstances outside of their control. Basic human requirements of food, water, shelter and good health can only be achieved if people are given the knowledge, tools and practical skills of how to apply it for the betterment of their lives. Poor waste disposal methods directly affect the health of the environment and its inhabitants yet such practices as throwing rubbish into vacant land or waterways is evident in many Vietnamese communities. This is indicative of poor policy, infrastructure investment and more importantly poor investment into education regarding the impact of poor waste disposal methods on human health.
It is the responsibility of leaders in developing and developed nations to devise policies and systems that enable the population to strive to what is the basic need to access food, clean water, and suitable shelter which is the foundation to building a fulfilling life for all humans.
Preventative maintenance in the manufacturing sector is a well-practiced discipline and it is done due to the financial benefits to such companies by reducing break down and repair costs and is a key component of ensuring consistency in product quality and supply to market. The same thinking or principal can be applied to waste disposal; the longer waste is dumped into the open environment the higher the cost is to society in both monetary terms and in health.
1.1.1. Overview of the extent of the problem.
As a developing country Vietnam has little infrastructure to cope with the enormous amounts of daily waste generated from a population of 91.5 million people. Only a small proportion of the population, generally the wealthier and those who live in developed urban areas, have access to waste collection services through their local municipality. In rural provinces the statistics show the majority of households throw their waste into either vacant adjoining properties, into the streets, into creeks and other local waterways, or bury or burn, or dispose of their waste in some other manner (Vietnam Household Living Survey 2010).
The Mekong Delta River system is home to almost 20 million people and is akin to both the Monash freeway and Melbourne’s industrial heartland. It is a labyrinth of tributaries with both sides of the river densely populated with rudimentary housing both on and alongside the river system. Many of the houses along the river’s edge sit precariously on unstable embankments which are being constantly eroded due to the relentless water traffic and are crudely repaired with whatever materials are available. The Mekong enables locals to taxi between their homes and their place of trade which includes the movement and selling of food, the mining of river sand for concrete, various forms of aquaculture, tourism and some locals use it to bath and collect the river water to cook with.
Figure 2: From top left to right: Mining the Mekong for River Sand. Locals bathing and washing clothes in the Mekong River and Selling produce at the floating markets. (Photos courtesy Nick Viney).
At a more industrious level the Mekong Delta region produces approximately 120 000 tons of cat fish per year based on 2001 levels and is doubling in size every two years. Unfortunately, one of the consequences of poor waste management is that this waste and it’s by products end up in the eco system, namely the water supply. Of particular concern is that many of the plastics thrown into the public domain and municipal waste facilities contain a toxic chemical known as Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDEs). PBDE can be found in many plastic consumer products such as textiles, electronic appliances including computers, televisions and car components and this chemical is used as a fire retardant and is a known carcinogenic (Contamination by Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Persistent Organochlorines in Catfish and Feed from Mekong Delta Vietnam, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 25, No 10, pp2700 – 2709, 2006, SETAC Press). Studies have shown that this chemical is leeching into the Mekong River system in high concentrations and is being absorbed into the wild Cat fish population. Cat Fish farming is a major source of income for local fishermen who on sell to local restaurants and can be purchased by locals at the various floating and land based markets.
Most of Vietnam’s biomedical hazardous waste is disposed of with the general Municipal waste posing a health risk to both the general public and those who work within the Waste Management / Recycling domain.
In 2010 the WHO Vietnam Health Profile reported that 10% of children under the age of 5 died from Diarrhoea. In a 2009 report titled, Country Profile of Environmental Burden of Disease, there were 5900 deaths caused by Diarrhoea due to Water, sanitation and hygiene issues.
1.2. What do we know?
Vietnam: A holistic view of Its History, Demographic Profile & Current Waste Practices.
Vietnam is a country that stimulates all of your senses from the very moment you’re feet touch the ground. Vietnam has a cultural diversity unlike many other South East Asian countries whereby its inhabitants have lived through many occupations during its rich history; China once occupied and had governance over Vietnam for nearly 1000 years until 938AD when they were finally deposed due to the battle of Bach Dang River. Vietnam self-governed for centuries through Royal families until the French began efforts to colonise Vietnam in 1858 which eventually became a part of French Indochina in 1887(The World Fact book, Central Intelligence Agency Publication, September 10th 2012). In the Second World War Japan invaded Vietnam to gain a strategic advantage over the allies to blockade supplies to the Chinese. Vietnamese Nationalist fought alongside the French to oust the Japanese and expected the French to give them the independence they yearned but instead the French remained Colonial Masters. As a result the Vietnamese troops turned on and defeated the French in 1954, which lead to the Geneva Accord splitting Vietnam into Communist North and Anti-Communist South (The World Fact book, Central Intelligence Agency Publication, September 10th 2012). Influences of the French occupation can still be seen in many cities today through familiar French architecture.
Vietnam’s population is growing at a rate of about 1.05% per annum and is currently estimated to be 91.5 million people (The World Fact book, Central Intelligence Agency Publication, September 10th 2012).
1.2.1. Income & Poverty Levels
Western societies are not immune to poverty however in Vietnam the degree or severity, or the sheer numbers of those who struggle on a day to day basis is overwhelming. However it’s not all doom and gloom. Vietnam is progressing as a developing country and opportunities for those who are typically bound to agriculture subsistence lifestyles and hence low incomes are increasingly migrating toward industrial centres to improve their income stream (Result of the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey 2010, Page 25). The Vietnam national poverty rate decreased to 10.7% in 2010 according to Vietnam Government Guidelines 2006 – 2010 which may not reflect World metrics. However new Government Guidelines on Poverty issued for the period 2011 – 2015 have the national poverty rate adjusted for 2010 to 14.2%. The Average monthly rural income in 2008 was VND 1070 or AUD $ 50.42 in current trading terms. The poorest earn a meagre VND369 Thousand or AUD $ 17.40 per month which is well below the international measure of $1.25/ day (Result of the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey 2010, Page 14).
The table below details the Vietnamese Governments moving Guidelines that define poverty levels by monthly income levels.
YearVND Urban (000)VND Rural (000)20042181682006260200200837029020104503602011 – 2015500400
Table 2: Vietnam Government Poverty Lines in VND *1000
Table 3 shows the percentage of those in Urban, Rural and Regional areas living in Poverty.
20042006200820102010*Whole Country18.115.513.410.714.2Urban22.214.171.124.16.9Rural21.218126.96.36.199Red River Delta12.7188.8.131.52Northern Midland Mountains29.427.525.122.529.4South East184.108.40.206.32.3Mekong River Delta15.31311.48.912.6
Table 3: Vietnam Poverty Levels. Rate in 2010* as per new Government Poverty Lines for 2011-2015
Current Waste Disposal Methods and Future Trends:
As in any country, as the human population and their wealth increases so too does their volume of waste generated. In wealthier Asian cities the average daily waste generated is in excess of 1 kg/person/day compared to developing Asian countries generate about 0.5kg/person/day (Municipal Waste Management Report: Status Quo and Issues in Southeast and East Asian Countries, Section 2.3, p8; Copyright 2010 AIT/UNEP Regional Resource Centre for the Asia Pacific, ISBN: 978-974-8257-73-0)). Below is a table showing the composition of Municipal Waste in Hanoi, Vietnam based on 2003 figures.
Type of Municipal Waste Composition (in %)Food WastePaperPlasticMetalGlassOtherHanoi, Vietnam41.91.915.667.227.4
Table 1: Types of Municipal Waste by Composition; Table 4 Municipal Waste Management Report.
Many of the SE Asian countries utilise open dump systems to deal with the ever increasing volumes of solid waste. The financial cost of collecting and disposing of urban waste is costing urban authorities up to 50 – 70% of their revenues on waste management (Page 2; Municipal Waste Management Report: Status quo and Issues in South East and East Asian Countries). Astonishingly many of the Asian cities spend up to 40% of their municipality budgets on MW, and 70-90% of that is spent on the collection of the waste alone (Manilla, Philippines in 2004 spent $64 million on MW collection).
In 2004 the Vietnam Environmental Protection Administration (VEPA) reported that the national municipal waste amounted to 12.8 Million Tons of which 50% was Solid Waste and of that Solid Waste only 1.152 to 1.408 Million tons was recycled (Table 3, Page8; Municipal Waste Management Report). The Vietnamese government reported through their 2010 Household Living Standard Survey only 39.2% households had their waste collected of which 79.6% where Urban and 21.4% of rural areas had their household waste collected (Result of the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey 2010, Page 18). Below are projected volumes of solid waste which as reported by the Vietnamese Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment ( VN to dump 44 million tonnes of waste by 2015, 13th February 2012, http://vea.gov.vn/en/laws/LegalDocument/Pages/VN-to-dump-44-million-tonnes-of-waste-by-2015-.aspx).
2004 figures from the AIT/UNEP Municipal Waste Management report, states that Vietnam had a total of 49 open dump sites, 91 controlled land fill sites and only 12 of the 61 cities and provincial capitals had engineered or sanitary landfills giving a total of 17 sanitary sites.
Ho Chi Minh City, formerly Saigon, is Vietnam’s most populous city with approximately 7 million inhabitants. In 2012 Ho Chi Minh City recycled materials worth VND 135 billion which is equivalent to AUDS $6.1 million (in 2012 terms) which indicates that recycling of waste materials can be a significant source of income for communities or the informal recycling sector. The table below shows the value of recycled materials in the Hai Phong district in Vietnams north with a population of approximately 1.83 million (Municipal Waste Management Report: Status Quo and Issues in Southeast and East Asian Countries, Section 3.5, p29).
Figure 3: Value of Recyclable materials in Hai Phong, Vietnam
The Key stakeholders involved in Municipal Solid Waste Collection include:
• Urban Environment companies as key players in MSW collection, treatment and disposal
• The ministry for construction which is responsible for the planning and construction of treatment and disposal facilities
• Ministry and Provincial Department of Natural Resources and Environment.
Per capita Vietnam produces 0.41kg of Municipal Waste per person per day which equates to approximately 34 to 35 million tons of MW per day (Table8: Page34, Municipal Waste Management Report). Given that the poorest household size in rural Vietnam is 4.18 persons per household (Result of the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey 2010, Page 10) this would mean these families would dispose of approximately 1.7kg of waste per day (0.41 kg x 4.18) consisting of which 0.712 kg would be food waste (41.9% Food Waste, See Table 1).
Figure 4: A snap shot of how households are disposing of Solid Waste (Vietnam Living Standards Survey, 2010)
Figure 5: How Incomes affect Disposal methods of Solid Waste (Vietnam Living Standards Survey, 2010).
Figure 6: How men and women differ in the disposal methods of Solid Waste (Vietnam Living Standards Survey, 2010).
Figure 7: Waste Disposal by Industry Sector
Unfortunately the civil population in Vietnam plays a very limited role in waste management which is the largest contributor to MW. Segregation efforts can reduce the amount of Food Waste going to land fill, which is a major source GH gas emissions, by 41.9%.
What we don’t know:
Gaps in our Knowledge
As a Lean practitioner (Nick Viney) one of the most important aspects of problem solving I ever learnt was that to truly understand any problem you have to practice what the Japanese call Genchi Genbutsu, Go and See for yourself. Quite literally when translated to English the term Genchi means location and genbutsu means actual materials or products. However within Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) this is interpreted to mean “going to the place to see the situation for understanding”. Over time the term Gemba which refers to “Actual Place” is commonly used to describe Genchi Genbutsu and every TMC employee has to practice and demonstrate the application of this principal. Gemba means more than just ‘Actual Place’ in Toyota, it means ‘go to the place where value is being added’. The Toyota Motor Corporation frowns upon the practice of taking anything for granted or to rely upon reports done by others in order to solve problems (The Toyota Way, 14 Management Principles from the World’s greatest manufacturer, Jeffery K Liker, p223). Toyota trained employees understand that what you see firsthand does not show up in any report and although the numbers are important they do not reveal the details of the actual process.
The following is an excerpt from a man who many consider as the father of the Toyota Production System (TPS), Taiichi Ohno:
“Of course data is important at any Gemba. But I place the greatest importance on facts or the ‘truth’. For example when a problem occurs, if our identification of the root cause is even slightly incorrect, then our countermeasure also will be completely out of focus. That is why we use the Five Why’s repeatedly and thoroughly. And that is the basis of the Toyota scientific method.” (p27, Managing to learn: Using the A3 management process to solve problems, gain agreement, mentor, and lead. John Shook, The Lean Enterprise Institute, 2006)
Therefore the following gaps in our knowledge place a certain amount of uncertainty regarding the successful implementation of our strategy.
a) There is no way of understanding the psychological and cultural motivations as to why locals continue to pollute their environment.
b) There is a clear lack of information regarding the types and volumes of Solid Waste being disposed of in An Minh which may differ from different other localities in the Mekong area.
c) There is no clear information on how or if solid waste is being removed from An Minh at any level.
d) There is no concise information as to how, when, where and who is collecting and separating the waste into recyclable categories such as paper, plastics, organic material etc for An Minh province. Is it being done by ‘Pickers’, small cooperatives, SME’s, large waste disposal organisations or the local municipality?
e) There is no clear information regarding the amount of assistance the An Minh province is receiving from local authorities and/or municipalities in terms of waste management.
Without this detailed information and firsthand knowledge our project will be making a number of suggestions that would atypically work given the right mechanisms of support at local and federal government level.
Your Aims and Objectives:
To reduce waste volume/pollution which affects the natural environment and inhabitant’s health through public education on the 4 R’s, including composting, this can lead to a possible income stream and offset the cost of composting consumables for households.
A closer look at An Minh
An Minh district is a district in Vietnam that is located on Mekong Delta in Kien Giang province. An Minh is characterized by fertile flood plains and is in fact a major producer of rice within Vietnam (Engineers Without Borders, 2012). An Minh has a large coastline and its coastal areas are characterized by mangrove forests which help to protect the inland from harsh weather as well as providing a breeding ground for animals (Engineers Without Borders, 2012). The climate in Mekong Delta which includes An Minh district is usually hot throughout the year and the dry season lasts for six months and the wet season for another six months (Engineers Without Borders, 2012).
An Minh Demographics
An Minh has an estimated population of 110 000 inhabitants which is a part of the greater Kieng Gieng. According to the General Statistics Office of Vietnam (2010), the total population in this province is 1,703,500, where 860 400are men approximately 843, 100 women, according to a 2009 census (General Statistics Office of Vietnam, 2010).
As Engineers Without Borders (2012) points out, despite An Minh and other areas that are located on the delta producing a lot of rice, they are the poorest areas in Vietnam and they lag behind other areas in all things including education.
Individual Sustainability Strategy
In order to satisfy our aim of reducing waste in the Anh Minh district, it has been concluded that encouraging schools in the region to educate and actively involve children regarding the issue of pollution will be an effective means of waste reduction. This can be justif
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