Analyzing a Health System Essay

Analyzing a Health System Essay

1. Directly respond to at least one classmate in a way that extends meaningful discussions, adds new information, and/or offers alternative perspectives.

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The comparative analysis makes it likely to recognize strategies and actions related to several countries. Comparing the healthcare system performance of other countries by utilizing regulated performance data can offer standards and other effective insights into enhancing healthcare (Schneider et al., 2017). Comparing various countries can present new ideas and new methods of accomplishing things. Also, comparison increases the inaugural logic’s analytical power, such as determining if a country’s lucrative policy will work for another and increase the analytical explanation capability. Comparisons are good research; however, caution should be exercised because what might work well with one country may not benefit the other, and policy integration will likely require alteration. Acknowledging another country’s framework and civilization is vital when analyzing a health system, recommending health system reforms, and clarifying the statistics (Healy, 2003). The foundation for comparative analysis has two functions; it develops a list of study classifications that range from a health structure analysis down to a very comprehensive study of a specific component. This conceptual foundation assists in taking contrasts with various countries’ health systems to permit researchers and policy-makers to assess assumptions and study what works and why. Analyzing a Health System Essay

References

Healy, J. (2003). Analysing health care systems performance: the story behind the statistics. AUST NZJ. Public Health. 2003;27(6):642-4. Doi:10.1111/j. 1467-842x.2003.tb00613.x.

Schneider, E., Sarnak, D., Squires, D., Shah, A., Doty, M. (2017). Mirror, Mirror 2017: International comparison reflects flaws and opportunities for better U.S. health care. Retrieved from https://interactives.commonwealthfund.org/2017/july/mirror-mirror/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIiaT88JOn3AIVhsDACh2rkw2sEAAYASAEEgL9p_D_BwE

Health care plans are important components of health care systems of every country. A health care plan essentially facilitates the provision of health care to people living within a country or jurisdiction. There are millions of people who do not have access to health care across the world. This problem faces many countries including the United States where 15% of residents do not have access to health care insurance. The lack of access to health care by the population may be attributed to weaknesses in healthcare plans in different countries. It is therefore important to assess the weaknesses and strengths of different healthcare plans across the globe with a view to embracing the strengths of different healthcare plans and eliminating the weaknesses in these plans. The paper will evaluate healthcare plans in United States of America, Russia, Algeria and Bangladesh. These countries were chosen since they represent diversity as they are located in different continents, that is, North America, Europe, Africa and Asia respectively. The findings will reveal that developed countries such as Russia and the United States face challenges such as inaccessibility to healthcare insurance by citizens while developing countries such as Bangladesh and Algeria, the major challenges are inadequate funding for healthcare and lack of healthcare infrastructure and personnel to meet the healthcare needs of the population. The paper recommends that governments across the world allocate higher investment in healthcare infrastructure and personnel, collaborate with private sector to ensure different population segments have access to healthcare services at affordable costs and investment in preventive medicine to ensure that people do not succumb to avoidable illnesses. Finally, countries should explore alternative medicine including traditional medicine to ensure a larger proportion of people have access to healthcare services and invest in new technology and techniques in medicine including telemedicine to ensure people have access to healthcare services irrespective of location barriers. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Introduction
Healthcare is an important need which every human being requires to survive. Healthcare systems are equally important for all states since they meet healthcare needs of different population segments. Countries with healthy workers are more likely to achieve higher growth and development levels. An effective healthcare plan should provide for different aspects of healthcare including health care providers, healthcare funding, healthcare service provision and healthcare personnel among other aspects. Different countries have different healthcare plans with various weaknesses and strengths. However, many healthcare plans face challenges in funding and this is the reason many people do not have access to healthcare insurance or services globally. In order to ensure that each country has an effective healthcare plan, it is important to analyze different strategies which have been implemented by countries in different continents. As previously stated, this paper will analyze the healthcare systems present in the United States of America, Russia, Algeria and Bangladesh. The strengths of healthcare plans in Russia, Algeria and Bangladesh will be replicated to the United States’ plan in order to improve its efficiency. Analyzing a Health System Essay

The United States health care plan is one of the best in the world. In this plan, healthcare is provided by collaboration between the government and private sector although the latter provides greater healthcare cover to ensure healthcare services are accessible by all. The government provides healthcare services through programs which include Medicaid, Medicare, Veteran’s Health Administration and the Children’s Health Insurance Programs (Christensen & Jason, 2009). It offers efficient healthcare services to the majority of the population although one major weakness is that it is inaccessible by over 15% of the population due to lack of health care insurance. Healthcare in Russia on the other hand is also advanced and the country boasts of more healthcare workers, hospitals and physicians per capita than all countries in the world. The country relies on a modern Vision 2020 Health Plan which aims at increasing life expectancy and reducing the high mortality rate. It aims at increasing life expectancy to 75 years and reducing heart attacks and strokes, a major cause of Russian mortalities, by 20%. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Healthcare provision in Algeria is not comparable with developed countries. There are few hospital beds, physicians and poor access to sanitation and water, all of which undermine healthcare provision. Although the healthcare policy focuses on prevention of disease, poor sanitation and lack of access to water causes measles, hepatitis, tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery. Healthcare in Bangladesh is also relatively poor with more than 60% of the population lacking access to modern healthcare services. Its huge population of over 100 million people serves to exhaust the limited health resources present with projections expecting it to increase to over 200 million by 2035. Although Algeria and Bangladesh have poor healthcare service plans, there may be positive attributes which may be adopted by the US healthcare plan. Further analysis into these healthcare plans will reveal whether the United States should borrow any effective healthcare plans from Russia, Algeria and Bangladesh. This analysis will be undertaken below; Analyzing a Health System Essay

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Analysis of health care plan for selected countries
United States healthcare plan
The United States healthcare plan is one of the most efficient in the world. As previously stated, most of the healthcare service provision is undertaken by the private sector although the government offers healthcare through programs such as Medicaid, Medicare, Veteran’s Health Administration and the Children’s Health Insurance Programs. The US spends more funds on healthcare per person compared to the rest of the UN states apart from East Timor. However, despite the investment in healthcare, approximately 35% of people are underinsured and 15% are uninsured. Although more funds are spent on healthcare compared to many other states, there are complaints that the healthcare services provided are not commensurate to the money paid. The US faces low life expectancy at 42 and high infant mortality rate compared to many developed nations. Usually, healthcare is paid for using health insurance through various programs including government programs, individual program, employer’s program or spousal benefits from employers. Non-profit organizations sometimes cater for charity cases for those who cannot afford insurance. Emergency care is however provided to all irrespective of whether they can afford treatment or not. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Strengths and weaknesses
There are several strengths and weaknesses of the US healthcare plan. Strengths include accessibility to modern technology and a large number of physicians to cater for healthcare needs of patients. The US healthcare plan also ensures all people have access to emergency care irrespective of whether they can afford it or not, which ensures lives are saved in cases of emergencies. The fact that the private sector and government collaborate to provide healthcare ensures that a larger number of people are covered and have access to healthcare services. Finally, the large expenditure by government on healthcare ensures that better healthcare services are provided to all. However, there are certain weaknesses in the healthcare plan and the first is the inaccessibility of health insurance by many. Over 15% of people in the US do not have access to healthcare insurance and 35% of people are underinsured (Mahar, 2006). This is a weakness since a large number of people cannot access healthcare as a result. There are also weaknesses in quality of healthcare provided with complaints that the services received for healthcare are not commensurate to payments made. Finally, the low life expectancy at 42, and high infant mortality rate compared to many developed nations, reveals weaknesses in healthcare service provision. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Russia health care plan
As discussed in the introduction, Russia boasts of more healthcare workers, hospitals and physicians per capita than all countries in the world. Healthcare in Russia is also funded through partnership between the private sector and government. Healthcare is paid through healthcare insurance and there are over 300 insurers who operate currently in the healthcare system. However, it faces challenges in high mortality rates and low life expectancy. As a result, the government developed a Vision 2020 Plan which aims at increasing the life expectancy and reducing the mortality rate (Field, 2001). There is optimism that the plan will work especially with the involvement of the public in developing this healthcare plan. The new healthcare plan also aims at promoting healthy lifestyles, improving paramedic services for accident victims, developing Russian medicines, improving blood service, improving early cancer detection and increasing access to medical technology by the population. The government is also encouraging more women to conceive through increased child support benefits and incentives to women who have more than two children. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Strengths and weaknesses
There are several weaknesses and strengths which are associated with Russia’s healthcare plan. Strengths include the Vision 2020 Plan which aims at increasing the life expectancy and reducing the mortality rate, which will improve the quality of life of population. This healthcare plan will address various healthcare issues including development of medicines, early cancer detection, medical technology accessibility, increased child births and blood service among others. Another strength of Russia’s healthcare plan is the large number of hospitals and physicians available to patients, with Russia boasting of more healthcare workers, hospitals and physicians per capita than all countries in the world. Weaknesses include the high mortality rates and low life expectancy. These are attributable to drug abuse, high suicide rates and increased cardiovascular illnesses. Poor service provision is also another challenge and this is traced to a decrease in funding to healthcare provision after the 1980s. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Algeria’s health care plan
As earlier stated, healthcare provision in Algeria is not comparable with developed countries, with few hospital beds, physicians and poor access to sanitation and water, all of which undermine healthcare provision. Healthcare primarily focuses on prevention of disease as opposed to treatment due to the low age of the average population. The healthcare in Algeria also focuses on providing free healthcare to poor people who cannot afford healthcare services. The private sector and government provide healthcare to the people although the larger proportion of care is provided by the government. Since the 1980s, average investment in healthcare by the government has increased by over 20% which has improved quality of care (Oxford Business Group, 2008). There are a few foreigners who practice medicine in Algeria and these are from Russia, France, Vietnam and Eastern Europe. The government requires doctors to work in public hospitals for at least five years before commencing service to private hospitals. However, the average quality of care compared to developed nations is low due to problems facing the country including poor sanitation and lack of access to water which leads to measles, hepatitis, tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery. There is also limited access to healthcare services by the population due to a limitation in hospitals and healthcare personnel present. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Strengths and weaknesses
There are various strengths and weaknesses which are associated with healthcare provision in Algeria. Strengths include the fact that the government finances treatment for poor people who cannot afford healthcare services which ensures that the poor have access to healthcare. The average investment in healthcare by the government since 1980s has increased by over 20% which has improved quality of care and this is another benefit. Algeria’s healthcare plan primarily focuses on prevention of disease as opposed to treatment and this is one of the most effective strategies applied to any healthcare plan. Finally, the government requirement that doctors work in public hospitals for at least five years before commencing service to private hospitals ensures that few doctors immigrate to foreign countries or private hospitals before offering service to public hospitals where the larger proportion of the poor seek healthcare service. Weaknesses in the healthcare plan in Algeria includes poor sanitation and lack of access to water which faces the country, which leads to measles, hepatitis, tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery. These diseases are all deadly and have contributed to the high mortality rates in Algeria. Another weakness is the low average quality of care provided for citizens, in comparison to care provided for by developed countries. This requires more government investment in healthcare and external support from international partners. Finally, the few hospitals, healthcare physicians and limitation of healthcare technology is another weakness which is present in the Algerian healthcare plan. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Bangladesh healthcare plan
Healthcare provision in Bangladesh is also relatively poor with more than 60% of the population lacking access to modern healthcare services. There is a shortage in physicians, hospitals and technology for use in healthcare. The large population of over 100 million also strains the few medical infrastructures available. However, the government has increased investment in healthcare over the years and significant gains are beginning to be realized. For instance, vaccine coverage in the country is one of the highest in the world, with 90% of children being vaccinated against a host of diseases. Public hospitals are mainly used for preventive and inpatient care while private ones are mostly used for outpatient care. A blend of traditional and modern medicine is used to cure a variety of diseases in Bangladesh. However, the private sector is mostly unregulated with people selling drugs and providing treatment having no professional background in medicine. This sometimes causes major health complications to patients. Healthcare is provided at different levels ranging from hospital care to home visits. Bangladesh however has a problem of inadequate healthcare physicians and hospitals to cater for healthcare needs for its large population. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Strengths and weaknesses
There are different weaknesses and strengths which are associated with the Bangladesh healthcare plan. The first strength is the large coverage of vaccine treatment which prevents many diseases amongst children. The second strength of this healthcare plan is the use of both traditional and modern medicine which addresses a host of illnesses. This medicine is provided at different levels including the hospital levels and family levels to ensure different population segments have access to different healthcare services. The increase in government investment in healthcare is another strength which strives to improve quality of healthcare accessed by the population. However, there are various weaknesses which are associated with healthcare provision in Bangladesh. The first is the limited healthcare infrastructure available which cannot cater for the large population. There are limited healthcare physicians and hospitals which limit the number of people with access to healthcare services. More than half the population cannot access healthcare services. Another weakness is poor regulation of people offering traditional medicine. As discussed, many people selling drugs and providing traditional treatment have no professional background in medicine. This threatens the lives of patients who seek healthcare services from them. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Comparison of countries’ health care plan with US health care plan and aspects which should be borrowed by the United States
The various healthcare plans for the United States, Bangladesh, Russia and Algeria have been discussed in detail in the paper. Each healthcare plan has different weaknesses and strengths. The United States has a relatively efficient plan although many residents do not have access to insurance. Russia has many healthcare physicians and hospitals although the mortality rate is high and life expectancy high due to preventable diseases. Algeria has an effective healthcare policy which focuses on preventative care although low investment in healthcare and poor water and sanitation facilities has undermined the success of the healthcare plan. Bangladesh has a broad traditional and modern medicine approach at different levels although high population growth rates and poor regulation of traditional medicine has undermined the system. There are various aspects of these health care systems which should be embraced by the United States in order to improve healthcare service provision. This will be discussed in this section of the paper and it will be done on a country by country basis. Analyzing a Health System Essay

The United States may replicate Russia’s system where a broad vision is developed with realistic targets which are meant to improve service provision. This vision should aim at reducing the number of people without access to healthcare insurance and reducing healthcare costs to the average citizen. This system should be developed in consultation with citizens as Russia did to ensure its overall success. The United States should also borrow various aspects from the Bangladesh system. It should offer medical care at different levels and consider investing in home visits for patients who cannot access healthcare services. The United States should also consider alternative forms of medical care including traditional medicine since it is proven to cure some conditions and illnesses just as effectively as modern medicines (Starr, 2001). Finally, the United States should replicate some effective strategies from the Algerian healthcare system including investing in preventive care, which is one of the most effective strategies in tackling modern illnesses and conditions. The government should also consider paying healthcare costs for the poor as it currently practiced in Algeria, which will ensure that more people have access to high quality healthcare services. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Summary and conclusion

The paper has analyzed the healthcare systems and plans for four countries including the United States, Russia, Bangladesh and Algeria. These healthcare plans have been seen to have different weaknesses and strengths which have been discussed in the paper. Developed countries including the United States and Russia have been seen to have different challenges in healthcare compared to developing countries such as Algeria and Bangladesh. Although Russia and the US have access to higher funding and investment in healthcare, they still have a significant portion of their population without access to healthcare insurance. Algeria and Bangladesh face challenges in funding and improving the quantity and quality of healthcare infrastructure including hospitals and number of physicians. It is the responsibility of governments across the world to ensure that citizens have access to high quality healthcare services. This can be achieved by higher investment in healthcare infrastructure and personnel as well as adopting successful practices in different nations. Developed nations should help fund healthcare in developing nations which face challenges in funding. Governments should also collaborate with private sector to ensure different population segments have access to healthcare services at affordable costs. Investment in preventive medicine will ensure that people do not succumb to avoidable illnesses. Alternative medicine including traditional medicine should also be explored since this will ensure a larger proportion of people have access to healthcare services. Finally, countries should explore new technology and techniques in medicine including telemedicine to ensure people have access to healthcare services irrespective of location barriers. This will ensure that all countries enjoy higher life expectancy levels and lower mortality levels. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Health care reform has been a big topic since the Clinton administration when First Lady, Hillary Rodham Clinton, took it under her belt to devise a new system. Health care is the provision taken to preserve mental and physical health using prevention and treatment. Compared to other health care systems in the world, the United States is ranked 37th in terms of care, claims Michael Moore (2007). Ironically, our health care system spends more than any other nation on its patients, averaging nearly $8,000 per person (DiNitto, 2012). With soaring costs, it is no surprise that one in every seven Americans are uninsured (Kaiser, 2011). Even with these sorry figures, statistics show that 85% of Americans are satisfied with their health care…show more content…
Rather, our mentality reasons, “I paid for my child’s dentist visit, why can’t this child’s parents do the same?”
How must we protect our values without losing our culture? The preexisting satisfaction our nation currently has, allows our patient-focused health care system to prevail. Yet because of the trifling, non-satisfied citizens, the system must be adjusted. Using our current system, we must expand coverage by cutting expenses and seeking justice. We need to implement new laws that reform Medicaid, protect clients, and monitor prices. Expanding coverage will cost money simply because health care expenses are high.
Health care costs are high for multiple reasons. Inefficiency is happening because doctors lack resources that inform them about their patients’ past tests and prescriptions. This costs time and money. According to Furchtgott-Roth (2009), former chief economist at the U.S. Department of Labor, ten cents of every dollar paid to the doctor goes to his or her malpractice insurance. These rates are so high because there is no cap on the amount of money a doctor can be sued. Doctors even fear being sued for doing “too little” in the patients’ eyes. Analyzing a Health System Essay

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Health care is a basic social necessity that is critical for people to acquire good health status despite their difference in social, political, and economic levels. The health care system in Canada has made significant steps in ensuring that Canadians receive health care services without undue discrimination.

Accessibility, universality, portability, comprehensiveness, and public administration are five principles that guide the health care system of Canada in delivering quality health care services. However, due to societal differences in social, economic, racial, and political backgrounds, discrimination does arise in delivery of health care services.

In Canada, Aboriginal people experience discrimination in health care by virtue of their race since they do not receive equal treatment. According to United Nations Human Development Index, health care of Canada ranks among the top nations, but health care of Aboriginal people ranks 68th in rural reserves and 36th in other parts (Tang, & Bowne, 2008, p.110). Analyzing a Health System Essay

Hence, racism among others factors such as social exclusion, poverty, and discrimination have contributed to inequitable access to health care by the Aboriginal people. Therefore, this critique examines how “race” and racialization process perpetuate inequality in health care system.

Ethnographic Study
The ethnographic study focuses on factors that influence decisions of Aboriginal patients when seeking health care services from Emergency Department in urban hospitals. The study hypothesizes that racialization affects how doctors and nurses deliver their services to Aboriginal people.

To collect robust data from interview and participant observation, the study sampled 82 participants; 38 were staff, which consisted of physicians, nurses and social workers, and 44 patients from Fast Track, a division of Emergency Department. Out of the 44 patients, 10 were Euro-Canadian patients and 34 were Aboriginal patients.

Tang and Browne (2008) point out that theoretical sample was necessary to expound racialization of “Aboriginality” among Aboriginal patients (p.112). Diversity of samples provided for comparative analysis of results with respect to racialization and accessibility of health care by Aboriginals people. Analyzing a Health System Essay

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Ethnographic researchers interviewed and observed Aboriginal patients for about 30 to 60 minutes at the Fast Track division in the Emergency Department. To collect reliable data, the researchers interviewed and observed Aboriginals patients in private places such as clinical examination rooms and meeting rooms.

Interviews and observations of physicians, nurses, and social workers also took places in the same place and did last for about 15 to 30 minutes. Tang and Browne (2008) assert that the study aimed at analyzing process of racialization in a health care environment (p.113). Process of racialization is so complex because it has many confounding factors such as economic, social, and cultural factors.

Effective analysis of racialization process involved the researchers, Emergency Department staff, and collaborators who confirmed that the data collected resonated with daily experiences that they constantly encounter. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Racialization
Racialization has a significant impact in perception of images attributed to certain people. Ideally, racialization involves conceptualization of “race” as a basic and natural way of categorizing people according to their racial attributes.

Dominant race has racialized perception of Aboriginal people because of their cultural, historical, social, and economic backgrounds, thus negatively affect their accessibility to health care. Tang and Browne (2008) argue that notions of “Aboriginality” emanate historical power relations between non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal populations, thus creating racialized images that negatively depict Aboriginals (p.114).

Hence, perception of Aboriginal people based on racialized Aboriginality explains tough experiences that they encounter as they struggle to access health care. Racialized Aboriginality is a concept that has historical origin, and plays a considerable role in shaping political discourses regarding racialization of Aboriginal people, in the context of health care.

Ethnographic study revealed that most Aboriginal people experience discrimination in health care system due to racialized images that depict them negatively. A case scenario describes how Aboriginal patient went to two different Emergency Departments in search of treatment of his chronic headache. Analyzing a Health System Essay

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In the first, the physician assumed him as drunk, hence did not diagnose any medical condition after brain scan. Since the physician gave him pills, but the pain did not relieve, the patient went to second Emergency Department where they did brain scan and realized that the patient requires urgent operation. Such a case scenario of the Aboriginal patient portrays experiences that Aboriginal patients undergo when they seek medical attention from health care system.

In the first Emergency Department, the physician based his diagnosis of severe headache on racialized perception that Aboriginals people are drunkards. Tang and Browne (2008) assert that, racialized images of Aboriginal people have negatively influenced how they obtain medical services from health care system (p.115). Therefore, this confirms that health care providers perceive Aboriginal people based on racialized assumptions that depict them as drunkards, poor, and abusers of substances.

Egalitarianism
Although the health care system of Canada upholds egalitarian principle, which supports equal treatment of everyone, racialization hinders Aboriginal people from accessing health care services. Egalitarianism has its basis in ethical principles, which ensure that everyone receives equal treatment in spite of differences in social categories that society attaches to people. Analyzing a Health System Essay

According to Tang and Browne (2008), application of egalitarianism in health care assumes that health care providers are sensitive and rational when exercising their roles lest they succumb to racialized perceptions of patients (p.117). Mere rhetoric of “treating everyone equally” does not reflect how Aboriginal people experience discrimination due to racialization.

Therefore, health care providers should avoid racialization of Aboriginal people by upholding ethical principles that guarantee just and fair treatment of everyone, and prevent discrimination in health care practice.

Racial profiling indicates that racialization is a hidden process that Aboriginal people encounter in health care system when they seek medical services. Although racialization is real, non-Aboriginal people always tend to deny it because they assume that everyone accesses health care equally.

Most people presume that social issues of race and racism no longer exist in society because they seem obsolete, thus; they overlook the fact that there is racialization of Aboriginal people in health care system. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Tang and Browne (2008) explain that, racial profiling is a discourse that government and media articulate to rationalize racializing practices among diverse communities (p.118). Hence, racial profiling of Aboriginal people indicates that they experience enormous challenges in their lives as they struggle to reclaim their racialized images that contribute to discrimination in health care system.

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Conclusion
The health care system of Canada is advanced because it advocates for egalitarianism, an ideology which ensures that everyone receive equal treatment in health care. However, racialization of Aboriginal people has hindered them from accessing health care services as their counterparts from other communities. Analyzing a Health System Essay

Ethnographic study revealed that racialization is a form of discrimination that relegates Aboriginal people by depicting them as drunkards, poor, and substance abusers. Assumptions and stereotypes that health care providers have relating to Aboriginal people determine the nature of treatment that they receive from health care system. Thus, race and racialization are factors that contribute to discrimination of Aboriginal people by health care providers. Analyzing a Health System Essay

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